NCERT Solutions For Class 6 History Chapter 10 Buildings Paintings And Books

Buildings Paintings And Books Exercises

Question 1. Match the following:

Buildings Paintings And Books Match The Contents

Answer:

Buildings Paintings And Books Match The Contents (2)

Question 2. Fill in the blanks:

1. ______ was a great astronomer.
Answer: Aryabhata

Read and Learn More NCERT Solutions For Class 6 Social Science

2. Stories about gods and goddesses are found in the ________
Answer: Pur anas

3. _______ is recognized as the author of the Sanskrit Ramayana.
Answer: Valmiki

4. ______ and ________ are two Tamil epics.
Answer: Silappadikaram, Manimekalai.

Question 3. Find out more and tell a story from one of the epics.
Answer:

  • The Ramayana is an epic written by Valmikiji. This epic is about Rama, a prince of Kosala (Avadh). He was sent into exile for fourteen years.
  • His wife Sita was abducted by the King of Lanka, named Ravana. Rama had to fight a battle to get her back. He won and returned to Ayodhya, the capital of Kosala, after his victory.

Question 4. List some steps that can be taken to make buildings and monuments accessible to differently-abled people.
Answer:

Steps that can be taken to make buildings and monuments accessible to differently able people:

  • Slopes can be created for the movement of wheelchairs or the height of stairs be reduced.
  • There can be audio guides for the visually impaired.
  • Toilets and other public facilities should suit their needs.
  • Volunteers may be employed to help these people.

Question 5. Try and list as many uses of paper as you can.
Answer:

List Of Uses Of Paper.

Buildings Paintings And Books Uses Of Paper

Question 6. If you could visit any one of the places described in this chapter, which would you choose and why?
Answer:

I would choose Mathura because it is related to the life of Lord Krishna. It is very near to Delhi, my home city.

Mathura is well connected by road and railways. There are many shrines and temples. I am fond of sweets. Mathura is well-known for its sweet products, especially peras (1teT).
Students can decide for themselves which place they want to go.

Question 7. Look at the picture and describe what you see.
Answer:

The image of the sculpture from Amaravati shows the taming of Nalagiri elephants. It shows that the Buddhist sculptures were influenced by the Greek-Roman style. This was the result of direct trade links.

Buildings Paintings And Books Sculpture From Amaravati

Question 8. List the problems that stone cutters may have faced.
Answer:

Stone cutters had to find and choose the right kind of stone for the monolith. Moreover, they had to work from top to bottom; unlike the brick structure from bottom to top.

Question 9. In what ways is the cave shown here different from the illustration?
Answer:

There is a difference between the structure

  • The structure of Bhimbetka cave in Madhya Pradesh. These were the natural structures that provided shelter to people.
  • The structure here is a Jaina monastery in Odisha. This was carved out of a rock surface. It is a story structure with rooms for living and meditation.

Buildings Paintings And Books Bhimbetka Cave In Madya Pradesh And Jaina Monastery In Odisha

Question 10. Describe what you see in each of these paintings.
Answer:

The painting depicts the art of Mural paintings. Natural colors were used. The paintings tell us about the previous life of Buddha, as a king.

Buildings Paintings And Books Painting From Ajanta

Question 11. Make a diagram to show the stages in the building of a temple or stupa.
Answer:

The Stages Of Building Temples:

  • Engs and queens decided to build these.
  • Choosing a place for the building.
  • Finding good quality stone, quarrying it.
  • Transporting the stone to the place.
  • Shaping the stone, carving into pillars or statues, walls, panels, etc.
  • Placing them in the right positions.
  • Gifts from devotees.

Buildings Paintings And Books Stages Of Builidings Of A Temple Or Stupa

Buildings Paintings And BooksVery Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. When was the iron pillar made?
Answer:

Iron Pillar was made about 1500 years ago.

Question 2. Why was Amaravati famous?
Answer:

It was the site of a famous stupa.

Question 3. What is the difference between Puranas and Vedas?
Answer:

Only male Brahmins and Kshatriyas were allowed to read or recite Vedic verses. However, the women and Shudras were also allowed to read and hear Puranic verses.

Buildings Paintings And Books Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Who was Aryabhata?
Answer:

Aryabhata was a mathematician and an astronomer who wrote Aryabhatiyam’ in Sanskrit.

  • He stated that days and nights were caused by the rotation of the earth on its axis.
  • The scientific explanation for eclipses was also developed by him.
  • The way of calculating the circumference of a circle was also found by him. His method of calculation is nearly as accurate as practiced today.

Question 2. Describe in brief the Iron Pillar at Mehrauli, near towering Qutub Minar, in Delhi.
Answer:

  1. The iron pillar at Mehrauli (near Qutub Minar), in Delhi, is a remarkable example of the skill of crafts persons.
  2. It is made of iron, 7.2 M high, and weighs over 3 tonnes.
  3. This pillar was made nearly 1500 years ago. We know the date because there is an inscription on the pillar.
  4. This iron pillar is a great proof of advanced technology of metalwork in India. It has not rusted in all these years.

Question 3. How were stupas built in ancient India?
Answer:

  1. There were several stages in building a stupa.
  2. Generally, rulers or their wives decided to build stupas.
    • They probably spent money from their treasury to support those who worked to build these splendid structures.
  3. Then, good quality stone had to be found. Stone was quarried, and transported to the place carefully chosen for the new building.
  4. Skilled laborers and artisans were called at the place of construction.
    • The rough blocks of stone had to be shaped and carved.
    • And then these had to be placed in precisely the right position.
  5. Whenever devotees came to visit the stupas, they often brought gifts, which were used to decorate the building.
    • For instance, an association of ivory workers paid for one of the beautiful gateways at Sanchi.
    • Others who paid for decorations included merchants, farmers, garland makers, perfumers, and smiths. Also, hundreds of men and women are known only by their names inscribed at different places of stupas.

Question 4. Discuss the features of the Ajanta Painting.
Answer:

  1. In Ajanta, several rocks were hollowed out over centuries to make artificial caves. Most of these were monasteries for Buddhist monks. Some of them were decorated with paintings.
  2. Most of the Ajanta paintings were done in the light of torches.
  3. The colors, which look new even after 1500 years, are made of plants and minerals.
  4. The artists who created these splendid works remain unknown.

Question 5. What do you know about Puranas?
Answer:

The Puranas are a collection of old Hindu religious stories.

  • They have stories about Vishnu, Shiva, Durga, Parvati, etc.
  • They have the details of their importance; and how they were worshipped.
  • There are accounts of the creation of the world; and many kings who ruled.
  • Puranas could be read or heard by everyone.

Question 6. What type of development took place in science?
Answer:

During this time Aryabhata stated.

  • The rotation of the earth on its axis causes day and night.
  • He gave the explanation for eclipses.
  • He also found a way to calculate the circumference of a circle.
  • He wrote Aryabhatiyam in Sanskrit.
  • The special symbol zero was invented in India during this time.

Question 7. Who invented the symbol for zero?
Answer:

Various types of Numericals were used earlier all over the world. The symbol for zero was invented by mathematicians in India. This system of counting was adopted by Arabs and spread to Europe. Now, it continues to be in use throughout the world.

Question 8. What was the method used by the Romans for counting?
Answer:

The system used by Romans for counting was without using zero. Roman numerals employ seven symbols. Numbers in this system are represented by combinations of letters.

Question 9.  Give a short note on Ayurveda.
Answer:

Ayurveda is a system of health science developed in ancient India. Plants and herbs were used to make medicines to cure diseases.

  • Charaka (1st-2nd Centuries C.E.) and Sushruta (C. 4th Century C.E.) are two famous practitioners of Ayurveda in ancient India.
  • Charaka wrote a remarkable book on medicine, Charak Samhita’
  • Sushruta in his treatise speaks about elaborate surgical procedures in ‘Susruta Samhita’.

Question 10. What major contributions were made by ancient Indian metallurgists?
Answer:

Ancient Indian metallurgists made various major contributions to the metallurgical history of the world.

  • During the excavations, the archaeologists found many things which show that the Harappans had knowledge of copper metallurgy. They were master craftsmen.
  • Even bronze was manufactured by them by mixing copper and tin. Harappans belonged to the Bronze Age.
  • Their successors belonged to the Iron Age. During ancient times highly advanced types of iron -forged iron, wrought iron, and cast iron were made in India.

Buildings Paintings And Books Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1. What is the meaning of the word Stupa? Mention certain common features of the stupa.
Answer:

Meaning of the word Stupa. The word stupa means a mound. Stupas are Buddhist religious buildings. There are several types of stupas, round and tall, big and small. These have certain common features.

Common features of the Stupa

  1. Generally, there is a small box placed at the center or heart of the stupa. This may contain bodily remains {such as teeth, bone, or ashes) of the Buddha or his followers. They keep things used by Buddha and his followers, as well as precious stones, and coins. This box, known as a relic casket, was covered with earth. Later, a layer of mud brick or baked brick was added. The structure was sometimes covered with carved stone slabs.
  2. Generally, a path, known as the pradakshina patha, was laid around the stupa. This was surrounded by railings. The entrance to the path was through gateways. Devotees walked around the stupa, in a clockwise direction for worship. Both railings and gateways were generally decorated with sculpture.

Question 2. Discuss in short some of the earliest Hindu temples.
Answer:

  1. Along with the Buddhist stupas, we also find some of the earliest Hindu temples. Deities such as Vishnu, Shiva, and Durga were worshipped in these shrines.
    • For example: temples at Bhitargaon in Uttar Pradesh.
  2. Bhitargaon’s Hindu temples were built about 1500 years ago. These temples were built of baked brick and stone.
  3. The most important part of the temple was the room known as the garbhagriha. Here the image of the chief deity was placed.
    • It was here that priests performed rituals, and devotees offered worship to the deity.
  4. Generally, a tower, known as the shikhara, was built on top of the garbhagriha.
  5. Most Hindu temples also had a space known as the mandapa, where people could assemble.
  6. In south India Mahabalipuram and Aihole, two towns were very famous for their temples. Some of the finest stone temples were built in these towns.
    • Three Of These Temples Are
      1. The Rathas,
      2. Shore temple,
      3. Durga temple.
  7. These temples were built about 1400 years ago. Monolith or single-stone temples are also very beautiful and impressive. These temples were carved out of a huge, single piece of stone.
    • Making these was very different from building with bricks.
    • Brick structures are built up by adding layers from the bottom upwards.
    • In Monolith temples the stone cutters had to work from top downwards.

Question 3. Explain the meaning of the word Epies. Discuss two Tamil epics.
Answer:

  1. Epics. Epics are grand, long compositions, about heroic men and women.
    • These compositions include stories about deities.
  2. Two Famous Tamil Epics
    1. The Silappadikaram: A famous Tamil epic, the Silappadikaram, was composed by a poet named Ilango, around 1800 years ago. It is the story of a merchant named Kovalan, who lived in Puhar and went to Madurai, where he was wrongly accused of theft by the court jeweler of the Pandya king.
      • The king sentenced him to death. Kannagi, his wife, was full of grief and anger at this injustice. She destroyed the whole city of Madurai.
    2. The Manimekalai: Second Tamil epic, the Manimekalai was composed by Sattanar around 1400 years ago. This describes the story of the daughter of Kovalan and Madhavi (his beloved).
      • These beautiful compositions were lost to scholars for several centuries. Their manuscripts were rediscovered, about a hundred years ago.

Question 4. Briefly describe the two Sanskrit epics.
Answer:

The two Sanskrit epics were Ramayana and Mahabharata.

  • Ramayana was written by Valmiki. It is the story of Prince Rama of Kosala.
  • Rama was sent to exile where his wife Sita was abducted by Ravana.
  • Rama fought a battle with Ravana. In this, he was supported by his brothers Lakshman and Hanuman.
  • After the victory, he returned to Ayodhya.
  • Mahabharata was the story of the war between the Kauravas and the Pandavas. It was to gain control of Hastinapur.
  • It was written by Ved Vyasa. Bhagavad Gita is included in the Mahabharata.

Buildings Paintings And Books Multiple Choice Questions

Choose The Correct Answer:

Question 1. In which city the iron pillar of Mehrauli is located?

  1. Aihole
  2. Mahabalipuram
  3. Delhi
  4. Madurai

Answer: 3. Delhi

Question 2. What is the height of the Iron Pillar?

  1. 12 Mts
  2. 7.2 Mts
  3. 5.0 Mts
  4. 8.2 Mts

Answer: 2. 7.2 Mts

Question 3. What does stupa mean?

  1. Mound
  2. Round
  3. Tall
  4. Short

Answer: 1. Mound

Question 4. Who are the God and Goddesses whose statues are worshipped in temples?

  1. Shiva, Vishnu, and Durga
  2. Indira Gandhi and Rajiv Gandhi
  3. All of these
  4. None of these

Answer: 1. Shiva, Vishnu and Durga

Question 5. Name the hall where people could assemble.

  1. Mandapa
  2. Shikharas
  3. Garbhagriha
  4. None of these

Answer: 1. Mandapa

Question 6. Who composed Silappadikaram?

  1. Ilango
  2. Banabhatta
  3. Kalidasa
  4. Sattaner

Answer: 1. Ilango

Question 7. Who composed Meghaduta?

  1. Banabhatta
  2. Kalidasa
  3. Surdasa
  4. None of these

Answer: 2. Kalidasa

Question 8. In which language were the Puranas written?

  1. Hindi
  2. Tamil
  3. Sanskrit
  4. English

Answer: 3. Sanskrit

Question 9. Which war was fought between the Kauravas and Pandavas?

  1. Ramayana
  2. Mahabharata
  3. Panipat
  4. None of these

Answer: 2. Mahabharata

Question 10. Which was the capital of Kosala?

  1. Hastinapura
  2. Ayodhya
  3. Kamal
  4. Delhi

Answer: 2. Ayodhya

Buildings Paintings And Books Objective Type Questions

Question 1. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words.

1. The _______ is placed at the center of the stupa.
Answer: relic casket

2. _____ was built on top of the Garbhagriha.
Answer: Shikhafa

3. Pur anas were written in simple ________ language.
Answer: Sanskrit

4. ______ and ________ were known for the finest stone temples.
Answer: Mahabalipuram, Aihole

5. Paper was first invented by the ________
Answer: Chinese.

Question 2. State whether the given statement is true or false.

1. Devotees walked around the stupa in anti clock direction.
Answer: False

2. People assembled in Mandapa for prayers.
Answer: True

3. Oil paints were used in a painting done on the walls of Ajanta caves.
Answer: False

4. Devotees who came to visit the temple or stupa were given gifts.
Answer: False

5. Kalidasa was a famous astronomer of this period.
Answer: False.

Question 3. Match the contents of Column A with that of Column B.

Buildings Paintings And Books Match The Columns

Answer: 1-e, 2-d, 3-c, 4-a, 5-b

 

NCERT Solutions For Class 6 History Chapter 2 From Hunting Gathering To Growing Food

From Hunting Gathering To Growing Food Exercises

Question 1. Complete the sentences

  1. Hunter-gatherers chose to live in caves and rock shelters because ________
  2. Grasslands developed around ______ years ago.

Answer:

  1. They provided shelter from the bad weather and wild animals.
  2. 12,000

Question 2. Why do people who grow crops have to stay in the same place for a long time?
Answer:

  1. People who grow crops have to stay in the same place for a long time to look after plants-protecting them from birds, and animals, and keep them, etc. so that they can grow crops or seeds could ripen safely.
  2. Settled life is useful and essential to lead a civilized life.
  3. People grow crops to meet their daily food and other needs.

Read and Learn More NCERT Solutions For Class 6 Social Science

Question 3. Why do archaeologists think that many people who lived in Mehrgarh were hunters to start with and that herding became more important later?
Answer:

  • Archaeologists who excavated the site of Mehrgarh found evidence of many kinds of animal bones from the earliest levels.
    • Archaeologists included bones of wild animals such as deer and pigs.
  • In later levels, they found more bones of sheep and goats.
  • In still later levels, cattle bones are most common, suggesting that these were the animals that were kept generally by the people of Mehrgarh.
    • The people of Mehrgarh were hunters to start with and herding became more important later.

Question 4. Why did the hunter-gatherers travel from place to place? In what ways are these similar to/different from the reasons for which we travel today?
Answer:

  • There were at least four to five reasons why hunter-gatherers moved from place to place.
    1. Animals moved from place to place—either in search of smaller prey or in the case of deer and wild cattle, in search of grass and leaves. That is why, those who hunted them had to follow their (i.e., animals) movements.
    2. Plants and trees bear fruit in different seasons. So, people might have moved from season to season in search of different types of fruits.
    3. People, plants, and animals need water to survive. Water is found in lakes, streams, and rivers. Many rivers and lakes are perennial (with water throughout the year) while others are seasonal. People living on seasonal river banks would have to go in search of water during the dry seasons (winter and summer).
  • In the following ways, people move or travel differently from the regions nowadays.
    1. People nowadays travel from one place to another by bus, train, airplane, or car.
    2. Generally, they do not like to give up their place due to shortage of water or change of seasons. Rather they arrange water through the regular supply of water and they use electronic means (air-conditioners/fans/heaters etc.) according to seasons.
    3. People move from one place to another for better facilities for education, health, employment, business, tourism, etc.

Question 5. List three ways in which hunter-gatherers used fire. Would you use fire for any of these purposes today?
Answer:

  1. Hunter-gatherers used fire as a source of light.
  2. Hunter-gatherers used fire to cook meat or food,
  3. Hunter-gatherers used fire to scare away animals also.
  4. The fire kept them warm in winter.

Yes, fire is used as a source to cook food including meat.

We also use it to keep us warm. Some people use it for religious purposes like havans; and also to bum dead bodies.

Question 6. List three ways in which the lives of farmers and herders would have been different from those of hunter-gatherers.
Answer:

  • The lives of farmers and herders had been different in the following ways:
    • Farmers And Herders started leading a settled life instead of a nomadic life, like hunter-gatherers.
    • Farmers And Herders became food producers instead of food gatherers. Domestication of plants and animals became part and parcel of the people of the Neolithic age.
    • Different types of houses were built by farmers and herders. They used tools of different forms from the earlier Palaeolithic stage people. These include tools that were polished to give a fine cutting edge, and mortars and pestles used for grinding grain and other plant produce.
    • Generally, farmers ate cooked and well-prepared foods, while on the other hand, hunter-gatherers ate uncooked food.

Question 7. List the cereals that you eat. Do you grow the cereals you eat? If yes, draw a chart to show the stages of growing them. If not, draw a chart to show how these cereals reach you from the farmers who grow them.
Answer:

List Of The Cereals:

From Hunting Gathering To Growing Food List Of Cereals

Yes, We Live In A Village And We Grow Some Of The Cereals. Chart Showing The Stages In Growing:

From Hunting Gathering To Growing Food Stages Of Growing

We Live In A Big City. We Do Not Grow Grain. We Get The Grains Indirectly From The Farmers.

  1. Farmers bring their produce to market.
  2. The grain traders buy cereals.
  3. We as customers go and purchase cereals from the traders.

Question 8. What do we use fire for today?
Answer:

Today fire is used for cooking, and keeping ourselves warm. In some communities, it is also used for religious purposes like having or burning the dead.

Question 9. Can you think of any reasons why the dog was perhaps the first animal to be tamed?
Answer:

The wild ancestor of the dog was the first animal to be tamed perhaps because it would have been relatively gentler than the rest and faithful to its owner.

Question 10. Do you think hunter-gatherers would have made and used pots? Give reasons for your answer.
Answer:

No, hunter-gatherers would not have made and used posts because

  • Hunter-gatherers were not living a settled life and had no need for storage of food.
  • Wheel or pottery making was not known till then.

Question 11. Apart from food, what are the other things that could have been obtained from animals? What are animals used for today?
Answer:

Apart from milk and meat as food, animals would have been used for

  • Their hide, (skin)
  • Protection, animals like dogs.

Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 2 From Hunting Gathering To Growing Food Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Do you know when trains were used first of all?
Answer:

Yes, I know that trains were first used about 200 years ago.

Question 2. When were the buses used first of all?
Answer:

People began using buses for about 90 days ago.

Question 3. Write the name given to the pre-historic age.
Answer:

Stone Age.

Question 4. What is the Stone Age?
Or
Define Stone Age.
Answer:

In the pre-historic age or period when mainly tools, weapons, and implements made of stone were used, that period is known as the Stone Age.

Question 5. What do you mean by “Neolithic Age”?
Answer:

The word ‘Neo’ means ‘new’ and ‘Lithic’ means ‘stone’. We can say the meaning of “Neolithic Age” is “New Stone Age”.

Question 6. What is Flint?
Answer:

A flint is a hard grey stone that can produce a spark, whenever it is rubbed.

Question 7. Write the difference between seasonal and perennial water sources.
Answer:

Seasonal rivers, lakes, etc. have water only during the rainy season whereas the perennial sources have water throughout the year.

Question 8. What were the uses of wood in the past?
Answer:

In the past wood was used as firewood or to make shelters like huts. It was also used as a handle for tools and weapons.

Question 9. From where does most of our food come?
Answer:

Today, most of our food comes from plants that are grown and animals that are reared.

Question 10. Write the meaning of the word/term domestication of animal in brief.
Answer:

Domestication of animals means to tame animals.

Question 11. Name the first domesticated animal by the early man.
Answer:

Most probably “dog” was the first animal to be domesticated by early man.

Question 12. Write one of the characteristics of a village life.
Answer:

  • One of the distinctive features (or characteristics) of village life is that most people who live there are engaged in food production (or farming).
  • They also rear animals like cows, buffalo, goats, etc.

Question 13. Write important historical events against the following dates:

  1. About 12,000 years ago
  2. About 8,000 years ago

Answer:

From Hunting Gathering To Growing Food Important Historical Events

Question 14. How was grain stored by the early settlers?
Answer:

Grain was stored in clay pots, woven baskets, or in the pits dug in the ground.

Question 15. Why were people buried with goats after death?
Answer:

People were buried with goats as it was believed that it would serve as food after death.

Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 2 From Hunting Gathering To Growing Food Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1 Who were the earliest people of the Indian subcontinent? Write a few lines about them.
Answer:

  1. The earliest people who lived in the Indian subcontinent as early as two million years ago were hunter-gatherers.
  2. The earliest people’s name comes from the way in which they got their food, by hunting wild animals, catching fish and birds, and by gathering fruits, roots, nuts, seeds, leaves, stalks, and eggs.

Question 2. Discuss in short the art of Rock Paintings done by the people of the early Stone Age.
Answer:

  • Many of the caves in which the early people lived in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods have paintings on the walls.
  • Some of the best examples are from Madhya Pradesh and southern Uttar Pradesh.
  • These paintings show wild animals, drawn with great accuracy and skill.

Question 3. What were the skills required by the hunter-gatherers?
Answer:

  1. Hunter-gatherers had to be faster and stronger than the animals they hunted.
  2. Hunter-gatherers had to be quick, alert, and fast at the time of hunting.

Question 4. How do we know that the early man was familiar with the use of fire?
Answer:

Traces of ash in the Kurnool caves indicate that the use of fire was known to the early man. Fire could have been used for warming, cooking or scaring animals.

Question 5. Discuss in short ‘the Beginning of Farming’.
Answer:

  • The climate of the world was changing and so were plants that people used as food.
  • People probably noticed several things:
    • Where edible plants were found.
    • How seeds broke off stalks.
    • Fell on the ground and new plants sprouted from them, and so on.

Question 6. How did cultivation give a new way of life to the people or settled life?
Answer:

New Way of Life and Process of Farming

  • When people began growing plants it meant that they had to stay in the same place for a long time looking after the plants, watering, weeding, and driving away animals and birds till the grain ripened. And then, the grain had to be used carefully.
  • As grain had to be stored for both food and seed, people had to think of ways of storing it. In many years, they began making large clay pots, woven baskets, or dug pits into the ground.
  • They also began to construct houses for storing grains and for living purposes.

Question 7. Discuss in brief the settled life of the earliest people of Burzahom (Kashmir) in the New Stone Age.
Or
Write a short note on “Towards a Settled Life in Burzahom”.
Answer:

Towards a Settled Life in Burzahom (Kashmir).

  1. Archaeologists have found traces of huts or houses at some sites. For example, in Burzahom (Kashmir) people built pit houses, which were dug into the ground, with steps leading into them. These might have provided shelter in cold weather.
  2. Archaeologists have also found fireplaces both inside and outside the huts which suggests that, depending on the weather people could cook food either indoors or outdoors.

Question 8. What do the scientists look for to decide whether a settlement is of farmers or herders?
Answer:

  • Scientists study evidence of remains of plants and animals’ bones to decide whether a settlement is of farmers or herders.
  • Findings of various types of burnt grains indicate that many crops were grown in different parts. So that indicates that the settlement is of farmers.
  • Bones of different animals have been found at different levels (Mehrgarh) indicating which animals were kept by people. So, that settlement may be of herders.

Question 9. What do we mean by “rearing” animals?
Answer:

Animals multiply naturally and provide milk which is a source of food and meat. This means that animals that are reared can be used as food.

Question 10. Describe the changes that came with settled life.
Answer:

Many kinds of earthen pots have been found.

  • Settled life were decorated and were used for storing or cooking food like rice, and lentils.
  • Settled life weaving of cloth began using different materials such as cotton; cotton was being grown now.
  • Hunting and gathering still continued along with herding and farming.

Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 2 From Hunting Gathering To Growing Food Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1. How do we know about hunter-gatherers? Write about their tools.
Answer:

  1. Archaeologists have found some of the things that hunter-gatherers made and used. It is likely that people used tools of stone and bone, of which stone tools have survived best.
  2. Some of stone tools were used for cutting wood, which was used as firewood. Wood was also used to make huts and tools.
  3. Other stone tools were used to cut meat and bone, scrape bark and hides, and chop fruit and roots. Some may have been used attached to handle bone or wood, to make spears and arrows for hunting.

Question 2. What were the main effects of the changing environment on the rearing of animals and other activities?
Answer:

  1. Around 12,000 years ago, there were major climatic changes with a shift to relatively warm conditions.
    • In many areas, this led to the development of grasslands, and animals that depended on grass, such as deer, antelope, goat, sheep, and cattle flourished.
  2. Those who hunted animals now followed them, learning about their food habits and their breeding seasons.
    • It is likely that this helped people to start thinking about herding and rearing some animals themselves.
  3. Fishing also became an important activity of the people.
  4. This was also a time when several grain-bearing grasses, including wheat, barley, and rice, grew naturally in different parts of the subcontinent.
    • Men, women, and children probably collected these grains as food, and learned where they grew, and when they ripened.
    • This may have led them to think about growing plants on their own.

Question 3. Discuss in brief ‘The Beginning of Herding’.
Answer:

  1. The Beginning of Herding
  2. The climate of the world was changing and so were animals that people used as food.
  3. People could also attract and tame animals (after beginning of the farming) by leaving food for them near their shelters.
  4. The first animal to be tamed was the wild ancestor of the dog.
  5. Later, people encouraged animals that were relatively gentle, lived in herds, and ate grass, such as sheep, goats, cattle, and also pigs, to come near the camps where they lived.
  6. Often, they protected these animals from attacks by other wild animals.

Question 4. What do you understand by the term? What is the general effect of this process on plants and animals? What points were kept in mind before/during this process?
Answer:

  1. Meaning Of Domestication Domestication was the name given to the process in which people grew plants looked after animals and left them at a popular place.
  2. Effect Very often, animals that were tended by people become different from wild animals.
    • This was because people selected plants and animals for domestication.
  3. Precautions Or Points Kept In Mind For Domestication
    1. People selected those plants and animals that are not prone to diseases.
    2. They also selected plants that yielded large grains and had strong stems, capable of bearing the weight of the ripe grain.
    3. Seeds from selected plants would preserved and sown to ensure that new plants (and seeds) will have the same qualities.
    4. Amongst animals, those that were relatively gentle were selected for breeding.

Question 5. Discuss in brief the stone tools used by the people in the Neolithic age.
Answer:

  1. Stone Tools of the Neolithic Age
  2. Stone has been found on many sites related to the New Stone Age. Many of these are different from the earlier Palaeolithic tools.
  3. Stone tools of this stage of the Stone Age include tools that were polished to give a fine cutting edge, and mortars and pestles used for grinding grain and other plant produce.
  4. At the same time, tools of the Palaeolithic types continued to be made and used. Some tools were also made of bone.

Question 6. What were tribes? What is their importance?
Answer:

Many of the farmers and hunters lived in groups called tribes.

  1. Usually, two or three generations live together.
  2. Farmers And Hunters followed occupations like hunting, gathering, farming, herding, and fishing.
  3. Agricultural work was done by the women and children.
  4. Thrashing, husking grinding, etc. was also done by the women.
  5. Animals were looked after by the men.
  6. Both men and women did weaving and made tools, huts, etc.
  7. Farmers And Hunters took part in dancing and singing.
  8. Farmers And Hunters decorated their houses and articles.

Question 7. Describe the Neolithic site of Mehrgarh.
Answer:

This site is located near Bolan Pass and is one of the earliest villages.

From Hunting Gathering To Growing Food Neolithic Site Of Mehrgraph

Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 2 From Hunting Gathering To Growing Food Multiple Choice Questions

Choose The Correct Answer

Question 1. When were the trains used first in the world?

  1. 200 years ago
  2. 250 years ago
  3. 150 years ago
  4. 300 years ago

Answer: 3. 150 years ago

Question 2. Why do hunter-gatherers move from place to place?

  1. In search of food
  2. In search of water
  3. Both (1) and (2)
  4. None of these

Answer: 3. Both (1) and (2)

Question 3. How did the ancient people travel?

  1. By buses
  2. By trains
  3. By ships
  4. On foot

Answer: 4. On foot

Question 4. Who had found the things which were made and used by the hunters?

  1. Astrologists
  2. Archaeologists
  3. Psychologists
  4. None of these

Answer: 2. Archaeologists

Question 5. In ancient times tools were made up of which material?

  1. Stone
  2. Wood
  3. Bone
  4. All of these

Answer: 4. All of these

Question 6. For what purpose were the stone tools used?

  1. To cut meat and bone
  2. To chop fruits and roots
  3. To make spears and arrow
  4. All of these

Answer: 4. All of these

Question 7. When did the domestication begin?

  1. About 12,000 years ago
  2. About 8,000 years ago
  3. About 6,000 years ago
  4. About 4,000 years ago

Answer: 1. About 12,000 years ago

Question 8. What is indicated by traces of ash?

  1. Use of water
  2. Use of tools
  3. Use of fire
  4. All of these

Answer: 3. Use of fire

Question 9. For what purpose did the men, women, and children collect the grains?

  1. For food
  2. For growing crops
  3. Both (1) and (2)
  4. None of these

Answer: 3. Both (1) and (2)

Question 10. What was the Mesolithic period?

  1. 6000-7000 years ago
  2. 7000-8000 years ago
  3. 8000-9000 years ago
  4. 12,000-10,000 years ago

Answer: 4. 12,000-10,000 years ago

Question 11. What type of food do we get from plants?

  1. Milk
  2. Meat
  3. Fruits, vegetables, and grains
  4. None of these

Answer: 3. Fruits, vegetables, and grains

Question 12. Name the animal that gives us milk.

  1. Cow
  2. Goat
  3. Sheep
  4. All of these

Answer: 4. All of these

Question 13. Select the animal that was the first to be domesticated.

  1. Lion
  2. Bear
  3. Dog
  4. Elephant

Answer: 3. Dog

Question 14. Where is the evidence of wheat, barley, sheep, goat, and cattle found?

  1. Koldihwa (UP)
  2. Gulf Krai (Kashmir)
  3. Mehrgarh (Pakistan)
  4. Hallur (Andhra Pradesh)

Answer: 3. Mehrgarh (Pakistan)

Question 15. Which of the following is an important source of milk and meat?

  1. Tiger
  2. Dog
  3. Goat
  4. Cat

Answer: 3. Goat

Question 16. Where is Mehrgarh located today?

  1. Uttar Pradesh
  2. Andhra Pradesh
  3. Pakistan
  4. China

Answer: 3. Pakistan

Question 17. In ancient times dead persons were buried with goats which means:

  1. To serve as food in the next life
  2. To serve as food in the present life
  3. Both (1) and (2)
  4. None of these

Answer: 1. To serve as food in the next life

Class 6 Social Science History Chapter 2 From Hunting Gathering To Growing Food Objective Type Questions

Question 1. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:

1. ______ was used to make tools and huts.
Answer: Wood

2. Grain bearing grasses like _____, rice and ________ grew in different parts of the subcontinent.
Answer: Wheat, barley

3. Grasslands led to an increase in a number of ______ that survived on grass.
Answer: Animals

4. Bhimbetka is located in the present-day state of _______
Answer: Madhya Pradesh

5. _____ and _______ were considered gentler animals.
Answer: Sheep, goat, pig, or cattle (any two)

6. Dead people in Mehrgarh were buried with ________
Answer: Goat

7. Houses in Mehrgarh were ________ or ________ in shape.
Answer: Square, rectangular

Question 2. State whether the given statements are true or false.

1. Grasslands developed around 12,000 years ago.
Answer: True

2. Some of the best examples of rock paintings are from Madhya Pradesh.
Answer: True

3. Palaeolithic site Hunsgi is in Karnataka.
Answer: True

4. The climate of the world changed to colder conditions around 12,000 years ago.
Answer: True

5. The Palaeolithic age was immediately followed by the Neolithic age.
Answer: False

6. Pit houses were found in Burzahom.
Answer: True

7. The first animal to be tamed was a goat.
Answer: False

8. Grain was stored in jute bags.
Answer: False

9. Palaeolithic tools were still made and used in the Neolithic period.
Answer: True

10. Bones from different levels in Mehrgarh indicate herding came after hunting.
Answer: True

Question 3. Match the content of Column A with that of Column B

From Hunting Gathering To Growing Food Match The Content Of The Column

Answer: 1-(c), 2-(d), 3-(e), 4-(a), 5-(b)

NCERT Solutions For Class 6 History Chapter 4 What Books And Burials Tell Us

What Books And Burials Tell Us Exercises

Question 1. Match the columns

What Books And Burials Tell Us Match The Columns

Answer:

What Books And Burials Tell Us Match The Column

Read and Learn More NCERT Solutions For Class 6 Social Science

Question 2. Complete the sentences:

1. Slaves were used for ________________
Answer: doing different works as per the desire of his or her owner (or master).

2. Megaliths are found in ________________
Answer: The Deccan, south India, in the northeast and Kashmir.

3. Stone circles or boulders on the surface were used to ________________
Answer: Mark burial sites.

4. Port-holes were used for ________________
Answer: burying other members of the same family.

5. People at Inamgaon ate ________________
Answer: wheat, barley, rice, pulses, millets, peas, the meat of different animals, fish, the meat of birds and fruits such as ber, amla, jamun, dates, etc.

Question 3. In what ways are the books we read today different from the Rigveda?
Answer:

  • The books we use today are written and printed. The Rigveda was recited and heard rather than read.
  • For many years from generation to generation the process continued. It was written down several centuries after it was first composed, and printed less than 200 years ago.

Question 4. What kind of evidence from burials do archaeologists use to find out whether there were social differences amongst those who were buried?
Answer:

  • Sometimes, archaeologists find a circle of stone boulders or a single large stone standing on the ground. These are the only indications that there are burials beneath.
  • All these burials have some common features. Generally, the dead were buried with distinctive pots, which are called Black and Red Ware.
  • Also found are tools and weapons of iron and sometimes, skeletons of horses, horse equipment, and ornaments of stone and gold.
  • Several kinds of evidence from burial archaeologists find that there were social differences among those who were buried underneath megaliths.
  • Perhaps there were differences in status amongst the people who were buried. Perhaps some were rich, others poor, some chiefs, others followers.

Question 5. In what ways do you think that the life of a was different from that of a dasa or dasi?
Answer:

Life of a raja was quite different from a dasa/dasi:

  • Raja participated in religious rites. Took part in wars, dasas were not allowed to do so.
  • Rajas were free and leaders of the area, whereas dasas were treated as property of the owners.

Question 6. Find out whether your school library has a collection of books on religion, and list the names of five books from this collection.
Answer:

Yes, our school library has a collection of books on religion.

List Of Books From School Library Collection:

What Books And Burials Tell Us School Library Collection

Question 7. Write down a short poem or song that you have memorized. Did you hear or read the poem or song? How did you learn it by heart?
Answer:

Suggestion: Students may write National Anthem—Jana-gana-mana- adhinayaka.

जन-गण-मन अधिनायक जय हे
भारत-भाग्य-विधाता ।
पंजाब सिंध गुजरात मराठा
द्राविड़ उत्कल बंग।
विंध्य हिमाचल यमुना गंगा,
उच्छल जलधि तरंग | तव शुभ नामे जागे, तव शुभ आशिष माँगे; गाहे तव जय गाथा । जन-गण-मंगलदायक जय हे,
भारत-भाग्य-विधाता ।
जय हे, जय हे, जय हे, जय जय जय, जय हे ।।

Or

National Song—Vande Mataram MicHH).

We have heard as well as read the song. We have repeated it again and again. We have learnt it singing usually daily in our school Morning Assembly.

Question 8. In the Rigveda, people were described in terms of the work they did and the languages they spoke. In the table below, fill in the names of six people you know, choosing three men and three women. For each of them, mention the work they do and the language they speak. Would you like to add anything else to the description?
Answer:

What Books And Burials Tell Us Terms Of Work They Did

Question 9. There were several things that people did to make megaliths. Write them.
Answer:

People Did The Following Things:

  • Digging pits in the earth
  • Burying the dead
  • Breaking boulders
  • Finding suitable stones
  • Shaping stones
  • Transporting stones
  • Placing the stones in position

Question 10. Was iron used in the Harappan cities?
Answer:

Yes, iron was used in the Harappan cities.

Question 11. Do you think this was the body of achievement? Give reasons for your answer.
Answer:

This was the body of a chief, because:

  • The body of a chief is found with jewelry.
  • The body of a chief is surrounded by well-decorated stones.

Question 12. How do you think he found out about the human body in such great detail?
Answer:

  • Charka studied the human body very carefully. According to him, there are 360 bones in a human body.
  • He arrived at this figure by counting teeth, joints, and cartilage along with the bones. However, according to modern anatomy, there are 200 bones in the human body.

Question 5. List the possible occupations of the people at Inamgaon.
Answer:

The Possible Occupations:

What Books And Burials Tell Us Possible Occupations

What Books And Burials Tell Us Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. For which three things in Rigveda were the prayers performed especially?
Answer:

There are many prayers in the Rigveda for

  1. Cattle,
  2. Children (especially for sons), and
  3. Horses.

Question 2. Write the names of three vish or jana, as mentioned in the Rigveda.
Answer:

Several Vish or Jana are mentioned by name in the Rigveda. The three names given in it are:

  1. The Puru jana or vish,
  2. The Bharata jana or vish, and
  3. The Yadu jana or vish.

Question 3. List the names of rivers mentioned in the Vedas.
Answer:

What Books And Burials Tell Us Vedas River

Question 4. Discuss in brief three Vedic gods, considered especially important.
Answer:

Three gods which are considered especially important:

  1. Agni,
  2. Indra, and
  3. Soma.
  1. Agni, the god of fire.
  2. Indra, a warrior god.
  3. Soma, a plant from which a special drink was prepared.

Question 5. Name the Vedas.
Answer:

There Are Four Vedas Namely

  1. Rigveda
  2. Yajurveda
  3. Samaveda
  4. Atharvaveda

What Books And Burials Tell Us Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. For which three things were battles fought by the Rigvedic people?
Answer:

  1. Battles were fought to capture cattle.
  2. Battles were also fought for land, which was important for pasture, and for growing crops.
  3. Some battles were fought for water, and to capture people.

Question 2. What was the fate of booty or looted wealth during the battle or war days?
Answer:

  1. Some of the looted wealth (or booty) obtained was kept by the leaders.
  2. Some portion of looted wealth was given to priests (brahmins).
  3. The rest of the looted wealth was distributed amongst the people.
  4. Some wealth (looted in the war or battles) was used for performing yajnas or sacrifices in which offerings were made into the fire. These were meant for gods and goddesses. Offerings could include ghee butter, grain, and in some cases animals.

Question 3. Write any three main common features of war of the Rigvedic age.
Answer:

  1. Most men took part in wars during the Rigvedic age.
  2. There was no regular army, but there were assemblies where people met and discussed matters of war and peace.
  3. The assemblies also choose leaders, brave and skillful warriors.

Question 4. Were some burial spots meant for certain families? If yes, give some facts to prove your answer.
Answer:

Yes, some burial spots were definitely meant for certain families. We can give the following facts to prove our answer:

  1. Sometimes, megaliths, contain more than one skeleton. These indicate that people, perhaps belonging to the same family, were buried in the same place though not at the same time. The
  2. Stone circles or boulders on the surface probably served as signposts to, find the burial site so that people could return to the same place whenever they wanted to.

Question 5. Who was Charaka? What is the name of his work? Describe one of his contributions with regard to the human body.
Answer:

  1. Charaka was a famous ancient Indian Physician about 2000 years ago.
  2. Charaka wrote a book on medical science known as the ‘Charaka Samhita’.
  3. Charaka has stated in his book that the human body has 360 bones. This is a much larger number than the 200 bones that are recognized in modern anatomy.
  4. Charaka arrived at this figure by counting the teeth, joints, and cartilage.

Question 6. Discuss “Food at Inamgaon” as archaeologists have found different proofs from different sites.
Answer:

Food at Inamgaon

  1. Archaeologists have found seeds of wheat, barley, rice, pulses, millets, peas, and sesame at Inamgaon.
  2. Bones of a number of animals, bearing cut marks that show they may have been used as food, have also been found. These include buffalo, goat, sheep, dog, horse, ass, pig, sambhar, spotted deer, blackbuck, antelope, hare, mongoose, birds, crocodile, turtle, crab and fish.
  3. There is evidence that fruits such as her, amla, jamun, dates, and a variety of berries were collected.

Question 7. Describe the words Aryas and Dasas (Dasyus) used for the people.
Answer:

  1. Aryas. Sometimes, the people who composed the hymns described themselves as Aryas.
  2. Dasas or Dasyus. Aryas called their opponents, Dasas or Dasyus. These were people who did not perform yajana and probably spoke different languages (other than Sanskrit).

Question 8. Who were slaves in Vedic society? Write a very short note about them.
Answer:

During the later Vedic Age, the term dasa (and the feminine dasi) meant slave.

Slaves were men and women who were generally captured in war. They were treated as the property of their owners (or masters) who could make them do whatever work they desired.

What Books And Burials Tell Us Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Describe different classes or categories of people as referred to or described in Rigveda.
Answer:

Words Of The Rigveda To Describe Different Classes Or Categories Of The People:

  1. There are several ways of describing people—in terms of the work they do, the language they speak, the place they belong to, their families, their communities, and cultural practices.
  2. Broadly speaking, there were two groups (of people) who were described in terms of their work—the priests sometimes called brahmins, who performed various rituals for the rajas. These rajas were not like the ones you will be learning about later (in the coming chapters).
  3. Two words were used (in the Rigveda) to describe people or the community as a whole. One was the word Jana, which we still use in Hindi and other languages. The other was Vish. The word Vaishya comes from Vish.

Question 2. How do we know who was buried in the graves?
Answer:

We know who was buried in the graves with the help of the following clues:

  1. It is easy to check out the skeleton of a child from its small size. However, there are no major skeletal differences between a girl and a boy.
  2. We can check out whether a skeleton was that of a man or a woman. We can decide this thing on the basis of what is found in the skeleton. For example, if a skeleton is found with jewelry, it is sometimes thought to be that of a woman.
  3. However, there are problems with this. Generally, men also wore ornaments.
  4. A better (or more reliable) way of finding the sex of a skeleton is from the bone structure. The hip area of a woman is generally larger to enable childbearing.

Question 3. Give a brief account of the major features of a Special Burial found at Inamgaon.
Answer:

A Special Burial Found at Inamgaon and its Major Features

  1. At Inamgaon, the scholars have found a special burial. It is a site on the river Ghod, a tributary of the Bhima. It was occupied between 3600 and 2700 years ago.
  2. Here, adults were often buried under the ground, laid out straight, with the head towards the north.
  3. Sometimes, burials were within houses. Vessels, that probably contained food and water, were placed with the dead.
  4. One man was found buried in a large four-legged clay jar in the courtyard of a five-roomed house (one of the largest houses at the site) in the center of the settlement. This house also had a granary. The body was placed in a cross-legged position.

Question 4. Write a short note on one of the oldest books in the world.
Answer:

  1. Vedas are known as the oldest books in the world.
  2. There are four of them—the Rigveda, Samaveda, Yajurveda, and Atharvaveda.
  3. The oldest Veda is the Rigveda, composed about 3500 years ago.
  4. The Rigveda includes more than a thousand hymns, called sukta or “wellsaid”. These hymns are in praise of different gods and goddesses.
  5. These hymns were composed by sages (rishis).
  6. These Vedas are written in Vedic Sanskrit. The Vedic or old Sanskrit is different from the Sanskrit that we learn in school these days.
  7. These hymns are in praise of various gods and goddesses.
  8. The Rigveda was recited and heard rather than written or read.
  9. The Rigveda was written down several centuries before. It was first printed less than 200 years ago.

Question 5. Write a short note on the megaliths.
Answer:

  1. Silent sentinels or stone boulders are known as megaliths (big stones).
  2. Megaliths were carefully arranged by people and were used to mark burial sites.
  3. The practice of erecting megaliths began about 3000 years ago, and was prevalent throughout the Deccan, south India, in the north-east and Kashmir.
  4. While some megaliths can be seen on the surface, other megalithic burials are underground.

What Books And Burials Tell Us Map Skills

On the outline map of India locate the following:

What Books And Burials Tell Us Mappointing

Answer:

  • Inamgaon
  • River Ghod and River Bhima
  • River Indus and its tributaries
  • River Ganga, Yamuna
  • Brahmagiri

What Books And Burials Tell Us Multiple-Choice Questions

Choose The Correct Answer

Question 1. Which of the following is the oldest Veda?

  1. Samaveda
  2. Yajurveda
  3. Rigveda
  4. Ayurveda

Answer: 3. Rigveda

Question 2. Who is the ‘god of fire’ according to Rigveda?

  1. Agni
  2. Indra
  3. Soma
  4. None of these

Answer: 1. Agni

Question 3. In which language is The Rigveda’ written?

  1. Vedic Sanskrit
  2. Vedic Hindi
  3. Vedic Tamil
  4. None of these

Answer: 1. Vedic Sanskrit

Question 4. Which of the two rivers are mentioned in the Rigveda?

  1. Ganga and Yamuna
  2. Beas and Sultej
  3. Saraswati and Brahamputra
  4. All of these

Answer: 2. Beas and Sultej

Question 5. When was the Rigveda written?

  1. About 3500 years ago
  2. About 1000 years ago
  3. About 500 years ago
  4. About 1500 years ago

Answer: 1. About 3500 years ago

Question 6. On which bark was the Rigveda written?

  1. Neem Bark
  2. Cinchona Bark
  3. Tulsi Bark
  4. Birch Bark

Answer: 4. Birch Bark

Question 7. Which were the two words used to describe the people or the community as a whole?

  1. Jana and Vish
  2. Aiyas and Dasas
  3. Both (1) and (2)
  4. None of these

Answer: 1. Jana and Vish

Question 8. In which region was the Rigveda composed?

  1. North-east
  2. North-west
  3. North-south
  4. Western-east

Answer: 2. North-west

Question 9. When the dead body was buried with gold beads it means that the dead man was a

  1. Rich man
  2. Poor man
  3. Chief
  4. Follower

Answer: 1. Rich man

Question 10. The evidence of which fruits were found?

  1. Ber, Amla, Jamun
  2. Mango
  3. Apple
  4. All of these

Answer: 1. Ber, Amla, Jamun

What Books And Burials Tell Us Objective Type Questions

Question 1. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words

1. _______ was a warrior god.
Answer: Indra

2. Inamgaon is on the banks of river ______ a tributary of river ______
Answer: Ghod, Bhima

3. Brahmagiri a site of megaliths is situated in modem day state of _______
Answer: Andhra Pradesh

4. Adults were buried with their heads towards _______ direction.
Answer: North

5. The hymns in Vedas were composed by _______
Answer: Sages

Question 2. Write whether the given statement is true or false.

1. Some of the hymns in Rigveda are in dialogue form.
Answer: True

2. There are many prayers in Rigveda for daughters.
Answer: False

3. The kings collected taxes and there were regular armies.
Answer: False

4. Boulders used for burial sites were called megaliths.
Answer: True

5. According to Charaka there are 200 bones in our body.
Answer: False

Question 3. Match the contents of Column A with that of Column B.

What Books And Burials Tell Us Match The Contents

Answer: 1-(b), 2-(d), 3-(a), 4-(e), 5-(c)

NCERT Solutions For Class 6 History Chapter 6 New Questions And Ideas

New Questions And Ideas Exercises

Question 1. Describe the ways in which the Buddha tried to spread his message to the people.
Answer:

  1. Buddha taught the people in Prakrit, which was the language of the ordinary people, so that everybody could understand his message without any difficulty.
  2. Buddha also encouraged people to think for themselves rather to simply accept what he said.
  3. Buddha, himself set an example by leading a simple life.
  4. Gautam Buddha moved from place to place to give his message to all people.

Question 2. Write whether true or false:

1. The Buddha encouraged animal sacrifices.
Answer: False

Read and Learn More NCERT Solutions For Class 6 Social Science

2. Sarnath is important because it was the place where the Buddha taught for the first time.
Answer: True

3. The Buddha taught that karma has no effect on our lives.
Answer: False

4. The Buddha attained enlightenment at Bodh Gaya.
Answer: True

5. Upanishadic thinkers believed that the Atman and Brahman were ultimately one.
Answer: True.

Question 3. What were the questions that Upanishadic thinkers wanted to answer?
Answer:

Some of them wanted to know about life after death, others wanted to know why sacrifices should be performed.

Many Upanishadic thinkers felt that there was something permanent in the world, something that would last even after death. They described this as the atman or the individual soul and the brahman or the universal soul. They believed that ultimately, both the atman and the Brahman were one.

Question 4. What were the main teachings of the Mahavira?
Answer:

The Main Teachings Of Mahavira Are:

  1. He taught a simple doctrine, men and women who wished to know the truth must leave their homes.
  2. They must follow the rules of ahimsa, which means not hurting or killing living beings, even unintentionally. For example, they had to cover their mouth and nose with cloth. This was to ensure that they did not (even by mistake) kill small insects by the hot steam of their breath.
  3. Not to steal and lead a simple life.
  4. Mahavira was against the caste system. He questioned the superiority of Brahmins.
  5. Mahavira laid stress on Triratna or the three jewels of life
    1. Right Conduct,
    2. Right Belief
    3. Right Knowledge.

Question 5. Why do you think Anaglia’s mother wanted her to know the story of the Buddha?
Answer:

We think that Anagha’s mother wanted her to know the story of the Buddha. The story of the Buddha would tell her about Buddha’s life as well as about his teachings and ideas.

Question 6. Do you think it would have been easy for slaves to join them? Give reasons for your answer.
Answer:

Yes, I think it would have been easy for slaves to join the sangha. Because Buddha favored and stressed the equality of human beings. Moreover, some slaves were very good in their work and performed many useful services for the people of Sanghas.

Question 7. Discuss the reasons why the Chinese pilgrims came to India.
Answer:

The Chinese pilgrims came to India to visit places associated with the life and teachings of the Buddha as well as famous monasteries. They procured Buddhist religious books also. They carried some books back with them.

Question 8. What is the true meaning of life?
Answer:

  • It is very important even today to know the true meaning of life. Because this idea will make us truthful.
  • We will lead a simple life. A simple way of life takes us towards honesty and makes us peaceful.
  • This way of life also takes us nearer to God or Brahma.

Question 9. Why life is full of suffering and unhappiness?
Answer:

  • Gautam, the Buddha taught us that worldly life is full of suffering and unhappiness.
  • This is caused because we have cravings and desires (which generally cannot be fulfilled). Sometimes, even if we get what we desire, we are not satisfied and want even more (or other things).
  • This is tanha or trishna or thirst.
  • This carving could be removed by following moderation in everything.

Question 10. What is Ahimsa or Non-violence? Why is it important even today?
Answer:

Ahimsa or a Non-violence word meaning is not killing any other living person, creature, cattle, or insect. Ahimsa is useful even today. It makes us kind; and teaches us to respect the lives of others, including animals.

Question 11. Find out more about men and women who renounce the world today. Where do they live, what kinds of clothes do they wear, what do they eat? Why do they renounce the world?
Answer:

  • Religious saints, monks, nuns, philosophers, jain-munnies (men as well as women), men and women who have joined the — Sangha renounce the world even today.
  • They live in ashrams, vihars, sangha, dargahas, churches, or lonely places for meditation or worship. Some of them even live in remote forests or near0 some permanent rivers or in the high mountains. They meditate for the most of the time.
  • They wear very simple clothes and clothes of a particular color (white, saffron, or green) and design.
  • Generally, they eat vegetarian food, simple rice or chapattis along with milk, fruits, vegetables, and pulses.
  • They renounce the world because they feel that only those who leave their homes can gain true knowledge and nirvana.

Question 12. What was the language used to compose the Vedas?
Answer:

The language used to compose Vedas was Vedic Sanskrit.

Question 13. What was the Buddha trying to teach the sorrowing mother?
Answer:

Buddha was trying to teach the sorrowing mother that no one is immortal. That one who has come to this world has to go back or die.

Question 14. How did the beggar convince the sages to share their food with him? 
Answer:

The beggar asked the sages whom they worship, When the sages replied that they worship the universal soul, the beggar said when they know that the universal soul fills everyone’s stomach then he should also be fed as he is also a part of the world. On hearing this the sages realised the truth and shared their food with the beggar.

Question 15. Why do you think the term Jina was used for Mahavira?
Answer:

The term Jina was used for Mahavira because it means one who has conquered temporal and material existence through self-discipline.

Question 16. List at least two ways in which the sangha described in this lesson was different. Were there any similarities?
Answer:

The difference between the two sanghas:

  • Sangha or Gana was a form of government and Sangha of this Chapter is a religious group of people who have left their home in search of truth.
  • Women, dasas, and kammakaras could not be a part of the political sangha. Anyone irrespective of caste, sex, or creed could join the religious sangha.
  • The only similarity was that the political sangha met to discuss political issues and the religious sangha together discussed social issues.

Question 17. In what ways is the system of ‘ashramas’ different from life in the Sangha?
Answer:

Sangha was a place where people who left their homes lived and meditated together. All men were allowed to join sangha whereas children had to take permission from their parents, slaves from their masters, and women from their husbands.

Ashrama does not mean a place where people live and meditate. But ashramas means four stages of life. They were known as brahmacharya, grihastha, vanaprastha, and sannyasa.

Question 18. List the reasons why Xuan Zang wanted to study in Nalanda.
Answer:

Xuan Yang Wanted To Study In Nalanda Because:

  1. The teachers were of the highest ability and talent.
  2. The following of Buddha were strictly followed.
  3. The rules of the monastery were strict and everyone had to follow them.
  4. The new entrants had to go through a severe level of test to get admitted.

New Questions And Ideas Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Who was Siddhartha? Where was he born?
Answer:

Siddhartha was the real name of Gautama Buddha. He founded ‘Buddhism’. He was born about 2500 years ago as a Kshatriya in Sakya gana (now in Nepal).

Question 2. Name the exceptions to Upanishadic thinkers.
Answer:

Most of the Upanishadic thinkers were Brahmins or rajas i.e., men. But, there were exceptions like Gargi, a woman, and Jabala, a slave.

Question 3. Who developed the ideas given in the Upanishads?
Answer:

Shankaracharya (Adi), a famous thinker, later developed the ideas given in the Upanishads.

Question 4. Which changes came in India about 2500 years ago?
Answer:

The New Changes Were:

  • Mahajanapadas were growing and cities were being established.
  • New religions: Buddhism and Jainism were taking shape.

Question 5. What do we mean by “Karma”?
Answer:

Karma refers to our actions—good or bad. As per the religious leaders karma affects our present and future life.

Question 6. Which book gives the rules of Buddhism?
Answer:

Rules of Buddhist sangha are given in “Vinaya Pitaka”.

New Questions And Ideas Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Discuss in brief the story of the Buddha.
Answer:

  1. When Gautama Buddha was a young man, he left the comforts of his home in search of knowledge. He wandered for several years, meeting and holding discussions with other thinkers (philosophers). He finally decided to find his own path to realization.
    • He meditated for many years under a peepal tree at Bodhgaya, where he attained enlightenment. After that, he was known as the Buddha or the Wise One.
  2. After attaining enlightenment Buddha went to Samath, near Varanasi, where he taught for the first time. He spent the rest of his life traveling on foot, going from place to place, teaching people, till he passed away at Kusinara.

Question 2. Write in short the life story of Vardhamana Mahavira.
Answer:

  1. Vardhamana Mahavira was a Kshatriya prince of the Lichchhavis. Lichchhavis was a part of the Vajji Sangha.
  2. At the age of thirty, Mahavira left home and went to live in a forest. For twelve years he led a hard and lonely life, at the end of which he attained enlightenment.
  3. The teachings of Mahavira and his followers were written down at a place called Valabhi, in Gujarat, about 1500 years ago.

Question 3. Write a short note on the six schools of philosophy.
Answer:

The Truth Was Explored By Indian Intellectuals Centuries Ago. It Has Been Represented By Six Systems Of Philosophy. These Are Known As

New Questions And Ideas Six Sytems Of Philosophy

It is believed that these systems of philosophy were founded by sages Konda, Gotama, Kapila, Patanjali, Jamini, and Vyasa respectively.

The scholarly discourse of these philosophies still guides the country. Friedrich Max Muller, German-bom British indologist has observed that these theories have been developed by individual thinkers. But they underlay harmony in their understanding of truth.

New Questions And Ideas Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1. What were the main teachings of the Buddha?
Answer:

The main Teachings Of The Buddha Were:

  1. The Buddha taught that life is full of suffering and unhappiness. This is caused because we have cravings and desires (which cannot be fulfilled).
  2. Sometimes, even if we get what we desire, we are not satisfied (permanently) and want (or desire) even more and more (or other things). The Buddha described this as thirst or tanka.
  3. The Buddha taught that thirst or tanha or constant craving could be removed by following moderation in everything.
  4. He also taught people to be kind and to respect the lives of others, including animals.
  5. The Buddha believed that the result of our actions (called Karma), whether good or bad, affects us both in this life and in the next life.
  6. He also encouraged, people to think for themselves rather than simply follow what he (the Buddha) said.
  7. The Buddha taught in Prakrit. This was the language of the ordinary people. So everybody could understand his message.

Question 2. Write a short note on the following:

  1. Upanishads
  2. Panini, the grammarian.

Answer:

  1. Upanishads
    • Background. Around the time of Buddha or a little earlier, other thinkers also tried to find answers to difficult questions about life.
      • Some of them wanted to know about life after death, others wanted to know why sacrifices should be performed.
      • Many of these thinkers felt that there was something permanent in the world, which would last even after death. They described this as the atman or the individual soul. They also described the Brahman or the universal soul.
      • They believed that ultimately, both the atman and the Brahman were one and the same.
    • Many ideas of the ancient thinkers were recorded in books called the Upanishads. These were part of the later Vedic texts (i.e., all three Vedas, other than the Rigveda are called the later Vedas).
    • Upanishad literally means “approaching and sitting near” and the texts contain conversation between teachers and students. Generally, ideas were presented through simple dialogues.
  2. Panini, the grammarian
    • He was a great scholar. He prepared grammar for Sanskrit, He arranged the vowels and the consonants in a special order. He used to create formulae like those found in Algebra.
    • He used them to write down the rules of the language in short formulae (around 3,000).

Question 3. Discuss Jainism, in brief.
Answer:

  1. The word Jaina comes from the term Jina, meaning conqueror.
    • Followers of Vardhamana Mahavira, who were known as Jainas, had to lead very simple lives and begging for food.
    • They had to be truthful and honest. They were especially asked not to steal.
  2. The followers of Mahavira had to observe celibacy. And men preachers had to give up everything, including their clothes.
  3. Mahavira taught a simple doctrine: men and women who wished to know the truth must leave their homes. They must follow the rules of ahimsa.
  4. The Jain Munnies had to cover their mouth and nose with a piece of cloth, ensuring that they did not kill small insects with their breath.
  5. Ordinary people could understand the teachings of Mahavira and his followers because they used Prakrit, the language of the people of that time.

Question 4. Why did the Jainism could not become popular among most of the people?
Or
What were the reasons for the low popularity of Jainism?
Answer:

  1. It was very difficult for most men and women to follow the main principles (or rules) strictly as desired by the founders and preachers of Jainism.
  2. Nevertheless, thousands left their homes to learn and teach the new way of life, preached by Jainism, Many more remained behind and supported those who became monks and nuns providing them with food.
  3. Jainism was supported mainly by traders. Farmers (the main portion of India’s population), who had to kill insects to protect their crops, found it more difficult to follow the rules.

Question 5. Discuss the Sangha.
Answer:

  1. Buddha (the founder of Buddhism) felt that only those who left their homes could gain true knowledge. He arranged for them to stay together in the sangha.
  2. The rules made for the Buddhist sangha were written down in a book called the Vinaya Pitaka. From this book, we know that there were separate branches for men and women.
    • All men could join the sangha. However, children had to take the permission of their parents, slaves of their masters, those who worked for the king had to take his permission, and debtors that of creditors.
    • Women had to take their husband’s permission.
  3. Men and women of the sangha led simple lives. They meditated for most of the time.
    • They went to villages, towns, and cities to beg for their food during fixed hours. That is why, they were known as hhikkhus and hhikkhunis.
    • They taught others and helped one another. They held frequent meetings to settle any quarrels that took place.
  4. Those who joined the sangha included Brahmins, Kshatriyas, merchants, laborers, barbers, and slaves. Many of them wrote down the teachings of the Buddha. Some of them also composed beautiful poems, describing their life in the sangha.

Question 6. Discuss the Vihars of the Jainas and the Buddhists.
Answer:

  1. To begin with, both Jaina and Buddhist bhikkhus went from place to place throughout the year, teaching people about their religions. They stayed in one place during the rainy season, when it was very difficult to travel,
  2. As time passed, the supporters of the bhikkhus built temporary shelters for them in gardens or they lived in natural caves in hilly areas.
  3. Then, several supporters of bhikkhus and bhikkhunis, and they themselves, felt the need for more permanent shelters, These were called Viharas. Initially, Viharas were made of wood, but later, Viharas were made of bricks. Some were even dug out in hills, especially in western India.
  4. Generally, the land for Vihara was donated by a rich merchant or the ruler. The local people came with gifts of food, clothing, medicines, etc. for the monks and nuns.

New Questions And Ideas Multiple Choice Questions

Choose The Correct Answer:

Question 1. When was Gautama Buddha’s horn?

  1. About 3,000 years ago
  2. About 2,500 years ago
  3. About 1,500 years ago
  4. About 1,000 years ago

Answer: 2. About 2,500 years ago

Question 2. Where did Buddha give his first sermon?

  1. Pataliputra
  2. Gaya
  3. Samath
  4. All of these

Answer: 3. Samath

Question 3. Who thought that people should be kind and respect others?

  1. Gautama Buddha
  2. Ajatasattu
  3. Shiva
  4. Alexander

Answer: 1. Gautama Buddha

Question 4. Who is the famous Tirthankara of Jains?

  1. Lord Krishna
  2. Lord Buddha
  3. Lord Mahavira
  4. Lord Mahesh

Answer: 3. Lord Mahavira

Question 5. What does Upanishad literally mean?

  1. Approaching and sitting near
  2. Go far away
  3. Both (1) and (2)
  4. None of these

Answer: 1. Approaching and sitting near

Question 6. Who went door to door to find out the home, where nobody had died?

  1. Kisagotami
  2. Rajula
  3. Sita
  4. Ahiliya

Answer: 1. Kisagotami

Question 7. Who believed that the result of our action is karma?

  1. Mahavira
  2. Buddha
  3. Indra
  4. Ram Chandra

Answer: 2. Buddha

Question 8. At what age did Mahavira leave his home and go to live in a forest?

  1. At 15 years
  2. At 30 years
  3. At 40 years
  4. At 45 years

Answer: 2. At 30 years

Question 9. What was Mahavira’s teachings?

  1. Live and let to be live
  2. Neither live nor to be lived
  3. Both (1) and (2)
  4. None of these

Answer: 1. Live and let to be live

Question 10. What did bhikkhus mean?

  1. Beggar
  2. Achiever
  3. Gainer
  4. Loser

Answer: 1. Beggar

New Questions And Ideas Objective Type Questions

Question 1. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:

1. Real name of Gautama Buddha was _______
Answer: Siddhartha

2. The word Jain comes from the term _______
Answer: Jina

3. The Vinaya Pitaka is a sacred book of _______
Answer: Buddhism

4  ______ language was used by Buddha for his teachings.
Answer: Prakrit

5. Prakrit spoken in Magadha was known as _______
Answer: Magadhi

6. Buddha passed away at _______
Answer: Kusinara

Question 2. State whether the given statements are true or false:

1. Satyakama was the son of Gargi.
Answer: False

2. Jain teachings were first written at Samath.
Answer: False

3. The universal soul has been referred to as ‘Brahman’
Answer: True

4. Jainism was initially supported by only the traders.
Answer: True

5. The earliest viharas were made of wood.
Answer: True

6. Upanishads are the part of Rigveda.
Answer: False

Question 3. Match the contents of Column A with that of Column B.

New Questions And Ideas Match The Contents

Answer: 1-c, 2-d, 3-f, 4-a, 5-e, 6-b

NCERT Solutions For Class 6 History Chapter 8 Villages Towns And Trade

Villages Towns And Trade Exercises

Question 1. Fill in the blanks:

1. ________ was a word used for large landowners in Tamil.
Answer: Vellalar

2. The gramabhojaka often got his land cultivated by the ________
Answer: slaves and hired workers

3. Ploughmen were known as ________ in Tamil.
Answer: Uzhavar

4. Most chapatis were ________ landowners.
Answer: Smaller

Question 2. Describe the functions of the gramabhojaka. Why do you think he was powerful?
Answer:

  1. The Functions Of The Gramabhojaka. In the northern part of India, the village headman was known as the gramabhojaka.
    1. Gramabhojaka owned a very large piece of land. He got it cultivated by his slaves and hired workers.
    2. Gramabhojaka used to collect taxes from the village, by the order of the king.
    3. Gramabhojaka also functioned as a judge, and sometimes as a policeman.
  2. Gramabhojaka As A Powerful Man As His post was hereditary. Usually, men from the same family held the position for generations.

Question 3. List the craftspersons who would have been present in both villages and cities.
Answer:

Read and Learn More NCERT Solutions For Class 6 Social Science

The List Of The Crafts Persons Who Would Have Been Present In Both Villages And Cities Are:

Villages Towns And Trade Craftpersons

Question 4. Choose the correct answer:

1. Punch-marked coins were made of:

  1. Silver
  2. Gold
  3. Tin
  4. Ivory

Answer: 1. Silver

2. Mathura was an important:

  1. Village
  2. Port
  3. Religious centre
  4. Forested area

Answer: 3. Religious centre

3. Shrenis were associations of:

  1. Rulers
  2. Crafts persons
  3. Farmers
  4. Herders

Answer: 2. Craft persons

Question 5. What kinds of evidence do historians use to find out about trade and trade routes?
Answer:

The Historians Use The Following Evidence To Find Out About Trade And Trade Routes:

  1. Archaeologists collected the Northern Black Polished Ware, bowls, and plates, found from several sites throughout the subcontinent. They guess that traders might have carried from the place where they were made, to other places.
  2. Historians find evidence of trade in Sangam poems. Here is one example which describes the goods brought into Puhar port on the east coast:
  3. Swift-prancing horses by the sea in ships
  4. Bales of black pepper in carts.
  5. Historians tell us that South India was famous for gold, spices, especially pepper, and precious stones. Pepper was valued in the Roman empire, as black gold. Indian traders carried many of these goods in ships, across the sea, and in caravans, to Rome.

Many Roman gold coins have been found in south India. These coins are considered proofs of trade relations between ancient India and the Roman Empire.

Question 6. Which of the iron tools would have been important for agriculture? What would the other tools have been used for?
Answer:

Iron tools are sickle, tongs, and axe. Out of these sickle and axes would have been used for agriculture. The other tool i.e., tong, would have been used to hold things without touching them.

Question 7. Compare the drainage system in your locality with that of the cities mentioned in the lesson. What similarities and differences do you notice?
Answer:

In our locality, the drainage system includes pipes and drains. In the lesson, it mentioned that irrigation projects/things, that were built during the time, included ring wells and drains.

Comparison:

  1. Similarities. Our locality has a good drainage system. Every individual house or building has a good drainage system. Archaeologists have also found some drains and garbage dumps in each of the cities/towns or sites mentioned in the chapter and in individual houses.
  2. Differences or Dissimilarities. Nowadays, everything (project or work) is well-maintained and made up of good raw materials.

But in early cities, mud bricks and thatch had been used. These didn’t last long.

We use separators and filters with modern technology.

Question 8. If you have seen craftspersons at work, describe in a short paragraph what they do.
Answer:

Crafts Persons At Work:

  1. Different craftspeople work in villages and cities. For example, blacksmiths, goldsmiths, carpenters, potters, weavers, etc.
  2. Craftsmen get raw materials from villages and nearby cities from traders.
  3. Crafts persons use different types of equipment, as required for their crafts.
    1. For example, a potter uses a potter’s wheel, a spade, a stick, a spin thread, etc.
  4. A blacksmith uses iron and other metals, a funeral, a hammer, a big-iron rod, etc.
  5. A weaver uses a spinning wheel, cotton, needle, scissors, dye-colours, dying-vessels, etc.
  6. A carpenter uses wood, iron, a hand axe, an iron blade, nails, hammers, pliers, etc.
  7. How they work
    • Most of the craftsmen work at their own cottages or homes. Other family members used to help him.
    • Many crafts persons formed associations known as Shrenis. Shrenis of crafts persons provided training, procured raw materials and distributed the finished product.
  8. What happened to the finished product
    • The crafts persons after keeping a small part of the finished products for their family use, took the remaining part of production to local markets to sell them. These merchants then took the products to those parts of the country or to other countries where they were demanded.

Question 9. List the functions performed by men and women who live in your city or village. In what ways are these similar to those performed by the people who lived in Mathura? In what ways are they different?
Answer:

In our city (or in our village) different types of functions such as domestic, officials, related to government posts or departments are performed by men and women as their daily routine.

Mathura: It was (and even today) an important religious city about 2500 years ago. It was important because this city was located at the two main trade routes. The city is known for several temples and shrines. Farmers and herders from adjoining areas provided food items etc. to the people of the city.

Similar: In our city or village people work as traders merchants or farmers, like the men of the old city of Mathura. The women did a lot of work at home; as the domestic wives or ladies do in modern cities and villages.

Differences: People in Mathura did work for the kings and their family- members. But now in cities or villages, people do work to meet their daily needs.

Question 10. List five things that you buy from the market. Which of these are made in the city/village in which you live, and which are brought by traders from other areas?
Answer:

List Of Things That We Buy From Market:

  • Food items: rice, pulses, etc.
  • Clothes
  • Stationery like books, pens, etc. Electronic items
  • Shoes

Among the above things—rice, pulses, and cheap clothes are locally made; certain types of handcrafted clothes are brought from other areas.

Question 11. Prepare a list of at least five objects made of iron or steel that you use almost every day.
Answer:

Scraper, hammer, nails, spoons, nut-bolts.

Question 12. Look at the chart and fill in the rest by using the given phrases.

  1. Kings need money for armies, palaces, and forts.
  2. They demand taxes from farmers.
  3. This is possible with irrigation.
  4. Production increases.
  5. So does revenue.

Answer:

  1. Kings need money for armies, palaces, and forts.
  2. They demand taxes from farmers.
  3. Farmers have to increase production to pay taxes.
  4. This is possible with irrigation.
  5. Kings provide money and plan irrigation work.
  6. Labor is provided by the people.
  7. Production increases.
  8. So does revenue.
  9. Farmers also benefit because crop production is more certain.

Question 13. Make a list of the occupations of people who lived in Mathura. List one occupation that was not practiced in Harappan cities.
Answer:

Occupations Practiced In Mathura:

  • Goldsmiths, blacksmiths, weavers, basket makers, garland makers, perfumers, traders, craft persons, officers, etc.
  • We have not found remains of palaces. So king’s officers as a profession would not have existed in Harappan cities.

Question 14. List the evidence that indicates that there was contact with Rome.
Answer:

We found evidence that indicates contact with Rome.

  • Argentine ware—stamped red glazed pottery has been found.
  • Roman designs on local pottery were used.
  • Roman lamps, glassware, and gems have been discovered.

Villages Towns And Trade Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. What is being done by Prabhakar?
Answer:

Prabhakar sat watching the smiths at the local shop.

Question 2. Which things and steps helped in. increasing production?
Answer:

New tools and transplantation of crops increased production. Irrigation was also used. Irrigation works, that were built during this time (2500 years ago), included canals, wells, tanks, and artificial lakes.

Question 3. What are Jatakas?
Answer:

The Jatakas were stories that were probably composed of ordinary people. These were written down and preserved by Buddhist monks.

Question 4. Explain the meaning of the term: Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions.
Answer:

Several pieces of pottery have inscriptions in the early Brahmi script. These are called Tamil-Brahmi inscriptions.

Question 5. For which articles of trade was South India famous during the ancient period?
Answer:

South India was famous for gold, spices especially pepper, and precious stones.

Villages Towns And Trade Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Discuss in a short paragraph ‘Iron Tools and Agriculture’.
Answer:

  1. We generally take the use of iron for granted today. In fact different types of things made of iron are a part of our daily lives.
  2. The use of iron began in India around 3000 years ago.
  3. Some of the largest collections of iron tools and weapons were found in the megalithic burials.
  4. There is evidence for the growing use of iron tools. Axes were used for clearing the land. The plowshare was used for increasing agricultural production.

Question 2. What do you mean by the term Sangam literature? Why these are called Sangam?
Answer:

  1. Meaning: Some of the earliest works in Tamil are known as Sangam literature. These texts were composed around 2300 years ago.
  2. Cause Of Being Called Sangam: These texts are called Sangam because they were composed and compiled in assemblies of poets. These assemblies were held in the city of Madurai.

Question 3. What do you understand by the term ‘Punch-marked coins’? Explain in brief.
Answer:

  • Early coins. Archaeologists have found several thousands of coins belonging to ancient India. The earliest coins were in use for about 500 years. These were punched. They have been given this name, as the designs were punched onto the metal.
  • Coins were used as a medium of exchange. But coins were not the only means of exchange. Other articles such as paddy, salt, and some animals were also used as means of exchange.

Question 4. Discuss the Northern Black Polished Ware or NBP Ware of the early centuries of ancient India.
Answer:

  1. Crafts of ancient India include extremely fine pottery, known as the Northern Black Polished Ware.
  2. The Northern Black Polished Ware gets its name from the fact that it is generally found in the northern part of the subcontinent. It is usually black in colour. It has a fine sheen (illustration).

Question 5. Explain in brief the role or functions of the Shrenis (guilds) in the Mauryan Age.
Answer:

  1. Many crafts persons and merchants formed associations known as Shrenis.
  2. Shrenis of crafts persons provided training, procuring raw materials, and distributed the finished product.
  3. Shrenis of merchants organized trade.
  4. Shrenis also served as banks, where rich men and women deposited money. This was invested and part of the interest was returned or used to support religious institutions such as monasteries.

Question 6. What type of information do we get from inscriptions found in Mathura?
Answer:

  • Several inscriptions on stones, slabs, or statues have been found. Most of these gifts were made by men, and women to shrines or monasteries.
  • They also mention professions like goldsmiths, blacksmiths, weavers, and basket and garland makers. Short inscriptions were made by kings, queens craft persons, merchants, etc.

Question 7. Discuss the story of the silk making.
Answer:

  • The rich glossy colors and texture of silk made it a highly valued fabric. Raw silk had to be extracted from the cocoons of silkworms. Techniques were first invented in China around 7000 years ago. These remained secret for Centuries.
  • Due to trade to distant lands, the route was known as the ‘Silk Route’.
  • Silk was given as gifts to the rulers of Iran and West Asia by the Chinese rulers.

Villages Towns And Trade Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Who lived in the villages in the northern region of the subcontinent before and during the age of the Buddha?
Answer:

Inhabitants in the Villages

  1. There were at least three different kinds of people living in most villages in the northern parts of the subcontinent.
  2. In the northern part of India, the village headman was known as the Gramabhojaka.
    • Usually, men from the same family held the positions for generations. In other words, the post was hereditary.
    • Apart from the gramabhojaka, there were other independent farmers, known as Grihapatis, who were smaller landowners.
    • And then there were men and women such as the dasa who did not own land. They had to earn a living working in the field of others.
  3. In most villages, there were also some crafts persons such as blacksmiths, potters, carpenters, and weavers.

Question 2. Who lived in the villages in the southern parts of the sub-continent?
Answer:

Inhabitants In The Villages

  1. In the Tamil region, large landowners were known as Vellalar.
    • Ordinary ploughmen were known as
    • Landless labourers including slaves, were known as Adimai.
  2. In most villages, there were also some crafts persons such as blacksmiths, potters, carpenters, and weavers.

Question 3. How do we find out about early cities of the subcontinent?
Answer:

We Find Out About Early Cities Of The Following:

  1. Stories or collections of ancient stories,
  2. Description of travelers and sailors,
  3. Sculpture, and
  4. Archaeological remains

NCERT Solutions For Class 6 History Chapter 8

Question 4. Describe the early city of Mathura.
Answer:

Generally, some cities were considered important for a variety of reasons. Let us look at the example of Mathura.

Mathura:

  1. It has been an important city for more than 2500 years.
  2. Farmers and herders from nearby villages provide food for people in the city,
  3. The city was located at the crossroads of two major routes of communication; from the northwest to east and from north to south.
  4. There were fortifications around the city.
  5. Mathura was also a center for fine sculpture.
  6. Around 2000 years ago Mathura became the second capital of the Kushanas (their first capital was Purshpur or modern Peshawar in Pakistan).
  7. Mathura was also a religious center—there were Buddhist monasteries and Jain shrines. It was an important center for the worship of Lord Krishna.
  8. Several inscriptions on surfaces such as stone, slabs, and statues, have been found in Mathura. These inscriptions mention goldsmiths, blacksmiths, weavers, basket makers, garland makers, and perfumers.

Question 5. Explain in short the main features of the Arikamedu settlement.
Answer:

Arikamedu

  1. This is located in Puducherry. Between 2200 and 1900 years ago, this site was a coastal settlement.
  2. A massive brick structure, which may have been a warehouse, was found at the site.
  3. Other finds:
    • Pottery from the Mediterranean region; such as amphorae (tall double-handled jars that contained liquids such as wine or oil)
    • Stamped red-glazed pottery, known as arretine ware, is named after a city in Italy. This was made by pressing wet clay.
    • Another kind of pottery was made locally with Roman designs.
    • Roman lamps, glassware, and gems.
    • Small tanks which were probably dyeing vats, were used to dye cloth.
    • Beads of semi-precious stones and glass.

Question 6. Discuss the silk route in your own words.
Answer:

Chinese traders went to distant lands on foot, horseback, etc. They carried silk with them. These paths came to be known as the Silk Route.

  1. Sometimes, Chinese rulers sent gifts of silk to rulers in Iran and West Asia. From there, knowledge of silk spread further west.
  2. It was very costly, as it had to be brought all the way from China. People living along the route often demanded payments to allow traders to pass through.
  3. Some rulers tried to control large portions of the route. They demanded taxes, tributes, and gifts from the traders. In return, they generally protected the traders from attacks by robbers.

Villages Towns And Trade Multiple Choice Questions

Choose The Correct Answer:

Question 1. When did the use of iron begin in

  1. Around 3,000 years ago
  2. Around 6,000 years ago
  3. Around 9,000 years ago
  4. Around 12,000 years ago

Answer: 1. Around 3,000 years ago

Question 2. What was the method of irrigation in ancient

  1. Canals
  2. Wells
  3. Tanks
  4. All of these

Answer: 4. All of these

Question 3. In which region landowners were known as Vellalars?

  1. Maharastra region
  2. Punjab region
  3. Tamil region
  4. None of these

Answer: 3. Tamil region

Question 4. Who were gramahhojaka?

  1. Village head men
  2. Ordinary people of the village
  3. Educated persons
  4. Illiterate persons

Answer: 1. Village head men

Question 5. People who had no land of their own and worked for others were

  1. Independent farmers
  2. Dasa Karamakara
  3. Herders
  4. Grihapatis

Answer: 2. Dasa Karamakara

Question 6. What was the only resource of a poor man in the story clever poor

  1. Dead rats
  2. Dead dogs
  3. Dead goats
  4. None of these

Answer: 1. Dead rats

Question 7. Where was the ring well found?

  1. Kolkata
  2. Mumbai
  3. Delhi
  4. Chandigarh

Answer: 3. Delhi

Question 8. Why were the sculptures used by the ancient cities?

  1. To decorate railings, pillars, etc.
  2. To decorate cities
  3. None of these
  4. Both (1) and (2)

Answer: 4. Both (1) and (2)

Question 9. What was Mathura famous for?

  1. Religious centre
  2. Forested area
  3. Port
  4. All of these

Answer: 1. Religious centre

Question 10. For what was South India famous for?

  1. Gold
  2. Spices
  3. Stones
  4. All of these

Answer: 4. All of these

Question 11. To whom did the Chinese rulers send gifts of silk?

  1. Rulers of Iran
  2. Rulers of Iraq
  3. Rulers of Pakistan
  4. Rulers of Kajakisthan

Answer: 1. Rulers of Iran

Villages Towns And Trade Objective Type Questions

Question 1. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words

1. ________ was used to increase agricultural productivity.
Answer: Ploughshare

2. Mathura was famous for worship of _________
Answer: Lord Krishna

3. Small landowners in north India were known as ________
Answer: Grihapatis

4. _______ served as banks for rich people.
Answer: Shrenis

5. Tall double-handled jars called Amphorae contained __________
Answer: Liquids

Question 2. State whether the given statement is true or false.

1. Most of the gramahhoj akas were small landowners.
Answer: False

2. Vellalar was a term used for large landowners.
Answer: True

3. Arrentine ware was so named after a city in Argentina.
Answer: False

4. Sangam literature was popular in the South.
Answer: True

Question 3. Match the contents of Column A with that of Column B.

Villages Towns And Trade Match The Contents

Answer:

 

NCERT Solutions For Class 6 History Chapter 7 From A Kingdom To An Empire

From A Kingdom To An Empire Exercises

Question 1. Make a list of the occupations of the people who lived within the Mauryan empire.
Answer:

A List Of The Occupations Of The People Who Lived Within The Mauryan Empire:

From A Kingdom To An Empire Occupation Of The People

Question 2. Complete the following sentences:

1. Officials collected __________ from the area under the direct control of the ruler.
Answer: Taxes

2. Royal princes often went to the provinces as __________
Answer: Governors

Read and Learn More NCERT Solutions For Class 6 Social Science

3. The Maury rulers tried to control ___________ and __________ which were important for transport
Answer: Roads, rivers

4. People in forested regions provided the Maury officials with________
Answer: Elephant and forest produce

Question 3. State whether true or false:

1. Ujjain was the gateway to the north-west.
Answer: False

2. Chandragupta’s ideas were written down in the Arthashastra.
Answer: False

3. Kalinga was the ancient name of Bengal.
Answer: False

4. Most Ashokan inscriptions are in the Brahmi script
Answer: True.

Question 4. What were the problems that Ashoka wanted to solve by introducing Dhamma?
Answer:

The Problems Ashoka Wanted To Solve By Introducing Dhamma Were:

  1. Respect for other religions and sects.
  2. Violence or killing of animals.
  3. Cruelty (He liked mercy or kindness towards slaves and servants).
  4. To maintain peace in families and among neighbors.
  5. Respecting one’s elders.
  6. Treating all creatures with compassion.

Question 5. What were the means adopted by Ashoka to spread the message of Dhamma?
Answer:

Ashoka Adopted The Following Means To Spread The Message Of Dhamma:

  1. He appointed officials, known as the Dhamma Mahamatta. They went from place to place teaching people about dhamma.
  2. Ashoka got his messages inscribed on rocks and pillars. He directed his officials to read his messages to those who could not read themselves.
  3. He also sent messengers to spread ideas about dhamma to other lands, such as Syria, Egypt, Greece, and Sri Lanka.
  4. Ashoka built roads and planted trees along these roads. He also dug wells and built rest houses.
  5. Besides he arranged for medical treatment for both, human beings and animals.

Question 6. Why do you think slaves and servants were ill-treated? Do you think the orders of the emperor would have improved their condition? Give reasons for your answer.
Answer:

  1. I think that slaves and servants were ill-treated. No political authority had favored the proper treatment of slaves and servants.
  2. Yes, I think the orders of the emperor would have improved the condition of slaves and servants. We can give the following reasons:
    1. Slaves and servants would have got proper wages and better behavior.
    2. Their respect in society and working conditions would have improved.

Question 7. Write a short paragraph explaining to Roshan why the lions are shown on our currency notes. List at least one other object on which you see them.
Answer:

  1. The lions that we see on our currency notes and coins have a long history. They were carved in stone and placed on the top of a massive stone pillar at Samath (near Varanasi).
  2. Lion from the Ashokan Pillar at Sarnath has four lions though only three can be seen. The fourth one is covered with one of the lions. After India became free, this Ashokan Lion became India’s National Emblem.
  3. We can see the lions on non-judicial stamp paper also.

Question 8. Suppose you had the power to inscribe your orders, what four commands would you like to issue?
Answer:

I Would Have Like To Issue The Following Four Orders:

  1. Everyone should respect their elders. Elders should love their youngers.
  2. Everyone should respect the other’s religion.
  3. Be kind to your servants and employees.
  4. Be loyal to your motherland.

Question 9. Name the countries where Ashokan inscriptions have been found.
Answer:

The Countries Were:

  • Modem Afghanistan
  • Modern Pakistan
  • India
  • Sri Lanka
  • Syria
  • Egypt
  • Greece

Question 10. Which Indian states were outside the empire?
Answer:

Part of modern Tamil Nadu.

Modern Kerala.

Question 11. How are empires different from kingdoms?
Answer:

Emperors need more resources than kings as empires are larger and need to be protected by big armies. In one empire there may be several kingdoms.

From A Kingdom To An Empire Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Who founded the Maury Empire and when?
Answer:

The Mauryan Empire was established by Chandragupta Maurya around 2300 years ago.

Question 2. Who was Kautilya?
Answer:

Kautilya is also known as Chanakya. He was Chandragupta’s minister. He helped him to establish the empire. He wrote “Arthashastra” which has his political ideas.

Question 3. Explain the meaning of the word Dynasty.
Answer:

When members of the same family become rulers one after another the family is called dynasty. The rule is called dynastic rule.

Question 4. Write the names of three rulers of the Mauryan empire and its capital.
Answer:

The Three Rulers Were:

  1. Chandragupta
  2. Bindusara
  3. Ashoka

The capital was at Pataliputra.

Question 5. Who was Megasthenes?
Answer:

Megasthenes was the ambassador of the Greek ruler Seleucus Nicator. He wrote “Indica” in which he described the rule and rulers of the Mauryan Dynasty.

Question 6. Look at the given picture and write two sentences about it.

From A Kingdom To An Empire Rampurwa Bull

Answer:

  • The picture depicts a sculpture of the Rampurwa bull.
  • This was part of the Mauryan pillar found at Rampurwa (Bihar).
  • It is now been placed in Rashtrapati Bhavan.

From A Kingdom To An Empire Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Mention any three big or prominent cities of the Mauryan empire. Why were these cities popular (or famous)?
Answer:

NCERT Solutions For Class 6 History Chapter 7

Question 2. Write the main features of the life of the people of the Mauryan empire.
Answer:

The Main Features Of Life Of The People Of The Mauryan Empire Are:

  1. There were several cities in the empire.
    • Mainly emperor and his other family members along with important officials of the kingdom lived in the capital. Merchants, officials, and crafts persons probably lived in the other cities.
  2. In other areas (other than cities), there were villages of farmers and herders.
  3. In some areas, such as central India, there were forests. Here people gathered forest produce and hunted animals for food.
  4. People in different parts of the empire spoke in different languages. They probably ate different kinds of food and wore different kinds of clothes.
  5. Besides, there were the forest regions. People living in these areas were probably more or less independent. They may have been expected to provide elephants, timber, honey, and wax to Mauryan officials.

Question 3. Discuss the ruling system of the Mauryan empire.
Or
Mention the main features of the administrative system of the Mauryan empire.
Answer:

The Ruling System (Or Administration) Of The Mauryan Empire Is:

  1. The Mauryan empire was very large. Its different parts were ruled differently.
  2. The area around Pataliputra was under the direct control of the emperor. This meant that officials were appointed to collect taxes from villages and towns in the area.
  3. Mauryan government officials also punished those who disobeyed the ruler’s order.
  4. Most of the Mauryan officials were given salaries.
  5. Messengers went to and fro. Spies kept a watch on the officials.
  6. The Mauryan emperor supervised all officials, spies, ambassadors, etc; probably with the help of members of the royal family and senior ministers.

Question 4. Write three or four sentences about provinces and their administration of the Mauryan Empire.
Answer:

  1. There were several provinces in the Mauryan empire. Examples: Taxila, Ujjain.
  2. Each province was ruled by a provincial capital.
  3. There was some amount of control from Pataliputra. Royal princes were often sent to the provinces as governors.
  4. In provinces local customs and rules were probably followed.

Question 5. Why was the control of roads and rivers considered important during the Mauryan Age?
Answer:

The Mauryas tried to control roads and rivers. These were important for transport and to collection of whatever resources were available as tax and tribute.

Question 6. Explain the following terms:

  1. Tribute
  2. The Brahmi script

Answer:

  1. Tribute. Tribute was collected as and when it was possible for people who gave a variety of things, more or less willingly.
  2. The Brahmi script. The Brahmi script was used to write the language of that time (Prakrit). Most of the modern Indian scripts have developed from the Brahmi script.

From A Kingdom To An Empire Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Describe in your own words what Megasthenes had written about the Mauryan Emperor and about the capital city of the Mauryan Empire.
Answer:

Here is a part of Megasthenes’s description of the emperor and the capital city:

  1. The Emperor
    • The occasions on which the emperor appears in public are celebrated * with grand royal processions. He is carried in a golden palanquin (4ld=h1).
    • Emperor’s guards rode elephants decorated with gold and silver. Some of the guards carried trees with birds. They flew around the head of the emperor.
    • The king (or the emperor) is normally surrounded by armed women. He was afraid that someone might try to kill him.
    • The emperor had special servants to taste the food before he ate.
    • He never slept in the same bedroom for two nights.
  2. The Capital City or Pataliputra (or modern Patna)
    • The Capital City of the Mauryan empire was Pataliputra (modern Patna). It was a large and beautiful city. It was surrounded by a massive wall. It had 570 towers and 64 gates.
    • The houses (of the capital city) were two and three stories, built from wood and mud bricks.
    • The emperor’s palace was made of wood. It was decorated with stone carvings. It was surrounded by gardens and enclosures for keeping birds.

Question 2. Discuss Ashoka’s war in Kalinga.
Or
Discuss the main events of Ashoka’s war in Kalinga. What were the effects of this war on him?
Answer:

  1. Ashoka’s War In Kalinga. Kalinga is the ancient name of coastal Orissa. Ashoka fought a war to conquer Kalinga. About a lakh and a half people were captured. More than a lakh people were killed. After this, he became the emperor of almost the whole of India.
  2. Impact Of Ashoka’s War In Kalinga
    • Ashoka was very horrified when he saw the result of violence and bloodshed. He decided not to fight any more wars.
    • Ashoka was very sad. He decided to observe Dhamma and teach others about it as well.
    • He believed after this victory in war; that winning people through dhamma was much better than conquering them through force.
    • He inscribed his message of peace and love for the future; so that his son and grandson should not think about war. Instead, they should try to think about how to spread dhamma.

Question 3. What was Ashoka’s Dhamma? What did he do in this field?
Answer:

Ashoka’s Dhamma

  1. Dhamma is the Prakrit word for the Sanskrit term Dharma. Ashoka’s dhamma did not involve worship of a god, or performance of a sacrifice.
  2. Ashoka felt that like a father, it is his duty to instruct his subjects. He was greatly inspired by the teachings of the Buddha.
  3. There were numerous problems that troubled Emperor Ashoka. People in the empire followed different religions. This sometimes led to conflict.

Animals were sacrificed. Slaves and servants were ill-treated. Besides, there were quarrels between families and neighbors. Ashoka felt it was his duty to solve these problems. So, he appointed officials, known as the Dhamma Mahamatta who went from place to place teaching people about dhamma.

Ashoka got his messages inscribed on rocks and pillars. He instructed his officials to read the message to those who could not read it themselves.

  1. Ashoka asked his people to give up useless rituals. He advised his subjects to be gentle with slaves and servants. He asked them to respect their elders.
  2. Ashoka asked his people to treat all creatures with compassion. They should give gifts to Brahmins and monks.
  3. Ashoka asked that each one should respect the other’s religion.
  4. Ashoka sent messengers to spread ideas about dhamma to other lands, such as Syria, Egypt, Greece, and Sri Lanka.
  5. Ashoka built roads and planted trees along these roads. He dug wells and built rest houses.

Besides, he arranged for medical treatment for both the human beings and the animals.

From A Kingdom To An Empire Map Skills

On the outline map of India locate the following:

From A Kingdom To An Empire Mauryan Empire The Principle Cities And Some Of The Places

  • Pataliputra
  • Rampurwa
  • Ujjain
  • Lumbini
  • Taxila
  • Kalinga
  • Sanchi
  • Kaushambi
  • Sarnath.

From A Kingdom To An Empire Multiple Choice Questions

Choose The Correct Answer:

Question 1. How many lions are shown in our national Emblem?

  1. Two
  2. Three
  3. Four
  4. Five

Answer: 3. Four

Question 2. What was the name of the grandfather of Ashoka?

  1. Krishna
  2. Mahavira
  3. Sidhartha
  4. Chandragupta Maurya

Answer: 4. Chandragupta Maurya

Question 3. In which book were Chanakya’s ideas written?

  1. Ramayana
  2. Mahabharat
  3. Arthashastra
  4. None of these

Answer: 3. Arthashastra

Question 4. Who was supported by a wise man named Chanakya?

  1. Ashoka
  2. Rindusara
  3. Chandragupta
  4. All of these

Answer: 3. Chandragupta

Question 5. Who was Bindusara’s son?

  1. Chandragupta
  2. Siddhartha
  3. Ashoka
  4. Ram Krishna Pramhans

Answer: 3. Ashoka

Question 6. In which script were the Ashoka’s inscriptions written?

  1. Devanagari
  2. Sanskrit
  3. Tamil
  4. Brahmi Script

Answer: 4. Brahmi Script

Question 7. What is the meaning of the word Dhamrna?

  1. Environment
  2. Dharma
  3. Both (1) and (2)
  4. None of these

Answer: 2. Dharma

Question 8. How many towers supported the massive wall of Pataliputra?

  1. 670
  2. 870
  3. 570
  4. 470

Answer: 3. 570

Question 9. How many people were killed in the war of Kalinga?

  1. More than 20,000
  2. More than 40,000
  3. More than 60,000
  4. More than one Lakh

Answer: 4. More than one Lakh

Question 10. Which is the other animal than the lion on the Mauryan Pillar?

  1. Tiger
  2. Cow
  3. Buffalo
  4. Bull

Answer: 4. Bull

From A Kingdom To An Empire Objective Type Questions

Question 1. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:

1. _______ was the founder of the Mauryan empire.
Answer: Chandragupta

2. As per the Arthashastra, the blankets of _________ were very famous.
Answer: North-west

3. Princes were sent as ________ to the provincial capitals.
Answer: Governors

4. Ashoka gave up war after the war of ________
Answer: Kalinga

5. The Sanskrit word for ‘Dhamma’ is _________
Answer: Dharma

Question 2. State whether the given statements are true or false.

1. Arthashastra was written by Ashoka.
Answer: False

2. Gold and precious stones of the South were very famous.
Answer: True

3. The Lions on the currency notes are from Rampurwa Bull.
Answer: False

4. Taxilla and Ujjain were ruled by Pataliputra.
Answer: True

5. Bulls and lions are shown on the Ashokan pillar.
Answer: True

Question 3. Match the contents of Column A with that of Column B.

From A Kingdom To An Empire Match The Entire Column

Answer: 1-e, 2-c, 3-a, 4-b, 5-d

 

NCERT Solutions For Class 6 History Chapter 5 Kingdoms Kings And An Early Republic

Kingdoms Kings And An Early Republic Exercises

Question 1. State whether true or false:

1. Rajas who let the Ashvamedha horse pass through their lands were invited to the sacrifice.
Answer: True

2. The charioteer sprinkled sacred water on the king.
Answer: False

3. Archaeologists have found palaces in the settlements of the janapadas.
Answer:  False

4. Pots to store grain were made out of Painted Grey Ware.
Answer:  False

Read and Learn More NCERT Solutions For Class 6 Social Science

5. Many cities in Mahajanapadas were fortified.
Answer:  True.

Question 2. Fill in the chart given below with the terms: hunter-gatherers, farmers, traders, craftspersons, and herders.

Kingdoms Kings And An Early Republic Raja Of The Mahajanapada

Answer:

Kingdoms Kings And An Early Republic Paid Tax For Raja Of The Mahajanapada

Question 3 Who were the groups who could not participate in the assemblies of the ganas?
Answer:

  1. Women,
  2. Dasas, and
  3. Karmakaras (or so-called shudras) were three groups who could not participate in the assemblies of the ganas or sangas.

Question 4. Why did the rajas of Mahajanapadas build forts?
Answer:

  1. The rajas of Mahajanapadas build forts to protect their capital city.
  2. Forts were probably built because people were afraid of attacks from other kings and needed protection.
  3. It is also likely that some rulers wanted to show how rich and powerful they were by building really large, tall and impressive walls around their cities. Also in this way, the land and the people living inside the fortified area could be controlled more easily by the king.

Question 5. Find out whether the groups mentioned in answer 3 have voting rights at present.
Answer:

Yes, all the groups (full citizens of a state or country of age 18 or above including men, women, etc.) have voting rights at present.

Question 6. Make a list of all those who would be present at the sacrifice. Which are the categories that are described in terms of their occupation?
Answer:

  1. The raja who wanted to perform the sacrifice.
  2. Specially trained priests.
  3. A Charioteer, who was a companion of the raja.
  4. Some relatives of the raja, particularly his wives and sons.
  5. Other small rajas, were simply spectators.
  6. The ordinary people, the Vish or Vaishya, who brought gifts for the king.

All are described as per their occupation.

Question 7. Is there a crop in this list that was not mentioned?
Answer:

All the crops like rice, wheat, barley, mustard etc. except sugarcane and cotton.

Question 8. List two ways in which the rajas of the mahajanapadas were different from those mentioned in the Rigveda.
Answer:

There were the following differences:

  • The Rajas of Rigveda had no capitals or palaces. The rajas of mahajanapadas had capitals, palaces and sometimes fortified ones.
  • Rigvedic rajas had no regular army, but the later rajas had regular armies who were paid salaries.
  • Unlike mahajanapadas, Rigvedic rajas collected no taxes.

Question 9. What do you think would have been provided by hunters and gatherers?
Answer:

Hunters and gatherers would have given forest produce as taxes to the rulers.

Question 10. Can you think why kings would encourage changes in agriculture?
Answer:

Kings encouraged the changes in agriculture as it increased production If more production, people would be more prosperous. Raja can get more tax.

Question 11. In what ways were the armies of mahajanapadas different from those described in the Rigveda?
Answer:

Armies Differed In The Following Ways:

  • There were no regular armies. Most men took part in the war. During mahajanapadas, there were regular armies who were paid salaries.
  • Matters of war and peace were discussed in the assemblies. Raja decided on the matter in the later days.

Question 12. In what ways was the Vajji Sangha different from the other mahajanapadas? Try and list at least three differences.
Answer:

Three Differences:

  1. They held full and frequent public assemblies.
  2. They met and acted together.
  3. They followed established rules.

Kingdoms Kings And An Early Republic Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1 What is the most important power of the people in a democracy?
Answer:

The people can choose their own rulers in a democracy.

Question 2. What process has made it common for some men to become rulers during the last fifty years or so?
Answer:

Choosing leaders or rulers by voting is something that has become common during the last fifty years or so.

Question 3. What was the ‘Ashvamedha’ sacrifice?
Answer:

Ashvamedha or the ‘horse sacrifice’ was a ritual. A horse was let loose guarded by Raja’s men. If the raja of the other kingdom stopped it, he had to fight. If they allowed it to pass through their kingdom, it meant they accepted the strength of the other ruler.

Question 4. Who was excluded from the rituals?
Answer:

Shudras or the Dasas were excluded from the religious rituals.

Question 5. Name two janapadas’ of the north.
Answer:

Hastinapur near Meerut and Atranjikhera near Etah.

Question 6. Why did the rajas of ‘mahajanapadas’ collect taxes?
Answer:

Rulers were building forts and maintaining armies, for this they required funds and resources. Therefore they collected taxes.

Kingdoms Kings And An Early Republic Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. How did men become rulers in the past?
Answer:

  1. Some of the rajas (rulers) were probably chosen by the jana, the people.
  2. Around 3,000 years ago, we find some changes taking place in how rajas were chosen.
  3. Some men became rajas (rulers) by performing very big sacrifices.

Question 2. Explain the term later Vedic.
Answer:

  • We have many books that were composed in north India, especially in the areas of the Ganga and the Yamuna, during the later Rigvedic age.
  • As these books were composed after the Rigveda, are generally called later Vedic (or later Vedic literature). These include the Samaveda, Yajurveda and Atharvaveda, as well as other books.
  • These were composed by priests and described how rituals were to be performed. They also contained rules about society.

Question 3. Write a short note on the composition of the society of the Later Vedic Period.
Answer:

  1. There were several different groups in society at this time—priests and warriors, farmers, herders, traders, craftspersons, labourers, fishing folk and forest people.
  2. Some priests and warriors were rich. Also, some farmers and traders were rich.
  3. Others including many herders, craftspersons, labourers, fishing folk hunters and gatherers were poor.

Question 4. Write a brief note on Painted grey ware.
Answer:

The Painted Grey Ware

  • Plates and bowls are the most common vessels made out of Painted Grey Ware. These are extremely fine to touch, with a nice, smooth surface.
  • Perhaps Painted Grey Wares were used on special occasions, for important people and to serve special types of food.

Question 5. Write the different roles performed by people present at the sacrifice.
Answer:

The raja was the main figure in the ritual.

  • Raja Charioteer, his companion in battle field chanted tales of exploits.
  • Raja wives and relatives performed minor rituals.
  • Other rajas watched the sacrifice as spectators.
  • Priests performed the rituals including sprinkling of sacred water.
  • Vish or Vaishyas brought gifts.

Question 6. How were forests important for Magadha?
Answer:

Parts of Magadha were forested (present-day Jharkhand)

  • Elephants living there could be captured and trained for the army.
  • Wood for building houses, carts chariots etc.
  • Iron ore mines could be tapped for tools and weapons.

Question 7. Write a short note on Alexander.
Answer:

Alexander of Macedonia wanted to become a world conqueror:

  • Alexander conquered parts of Egypt and West Asia and came to India.
  • On the banks of river Beas, his soldiers refused to go further.
  • Alexander could not fulfil his dream.

Question 8. What was the governance system of the ganas or the sanghas?
Answer:

In gana or a sangha, there were many rulers. Sometimes thousands of rajas ruled together

  • The rajas performed rituals together.
  • They met in assemblies to make decisions through discussions and debates.
  • They discussed issues related to war and peace in the assembly.
  • Women and dasas were not allowed to participate.

Kingdoms Kings And An Early Republic Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Discuss the four Varnas of the later Vedic period.
Answer:

The Four Varnas. The priests divided people of the ancient India (of the Later Vedic Age) into four groups, called Varnas. According to them, each Varna had a different set of functions to perform.

Kingdoms Kings And An Early Republic Four Varnas

Question 2. What was the basis of the Varna system,, according to the priests? Why did people oppose the system of Varnas?
Answer:

  1. Basis Of The Varnas
    • The priests declared that four groups of people were decided on the basis of birth. For instance, if one’s father and mother were Brahmins one would automatically become a Brahmin and so on.
    • Later on, the priests classified some people as untouchable. These included some crafts persons, hunters and gatherers, as well as people who helped perform burials and cremations.
    • The priests said that contact with these groups was polluting,
  2. Causes Of Opposition To The System Of Varnas. Many people did not accept the system of Varna laid down by the Brahmins
    • Some kings thought they were superior to the priests.
    • Other people felt that birth could not be a basis for deciding which area people belonged to.
    • Besides, some people felt that there should be no differences among people based on occupation.
    • Other people favoured that everybody should be able to perform rituals.
    • Some people condemned the practice of untouchability.

Question 3. Who ruled janapada? Where people were living and what was their occupation?
Answer:

Rajas who performed the big sacrifices became the rulers of janapadas:

  • People here lived in huts and reared cattle and other animals.
  • They grew a variety of crops like rice, wheat, barley, mustard etc.
  • They made grey and red earthen pots.
  • Some people were herders, traders and farmers.
  • Some people were hunters, craft persons and gatherers.
  • Some janapadas became important and were later called mahajanapadas.

Question 4. What type of taxes were collected by the rulers?
Answer:

Rulers collected the following taxes for fortification and maintaining armies:

  • Taxes on crops which was 176th of the produce.
  • This was known as Bhaga
  • Taxes on craft persons in the form of labour performed for the king.
  • Herders paid taxes in the form of animals and their produce.
  • There was a trade tax on goods bought and sold.
  • Hunters and gatherers provided forest produce to the rajas,

Question 5. What changes were brought to agriculture during this period?
Answer:

There were two major changes in agriculture

  • Iron ploughshare were used to turn over the soil.
  • Transplanting of paddy began. Instead of scattering seeds, saplings were grown and then planted.
  • This led to increased production. The work of Dasas increased.

Kingdoms Kings And An Early Republic Map Skills

On the outline map of India locate the janapadas and mahajanapadas.

Kingdoms Kings And An Early Republic Map For Janapads Mahajanapadas And Cities

  • Kuru
  • Panchala
  • Kosala
  • Gandhara
  • Magadha
  • Anga
  • Avanti

Kingdoms Kings And An Early Republic Multiple Choice Questions

Choose The Correct Answer:

Question 1. How did men become rulers around 3,000 years ago?

  1. By voting
  2. By Ashvamedha
  3. None of these
  4. Both (1) and (2)

Answer: 2. By Ashvamedha

Question 2. Who guarded the horse?

  1. Janas
  2. Raja’s men
  3. Ordinary people
  4. All of these

Answer: 2. Raja’s men

Question 3. Who brought gifts for rulers?

  1. Vaishyas
  2. Shudras
  3. Brahmins
  4. None of these

Answer: 1. Vaishyas

Question 4. Where is Hastinapur located?

  1. Near Kolkata
  2. Near Mumbai
  3. Near Meerut
  4. Near Agra

Answer: 3. Near Meerut

Question 5. Where is Purana Qila situated?

  1. Delhi
  2. Agra
  3. Kolkata
  4. None of these

Answer: 1. Delhi

Question 6. In what mode were the payments done?

  1. Punch marked coins
  2. Paper notes
  3. Gold coins
  4. Silver coins

Answer: 1. Punch marked coins

Question 7. Why did the rulers collect regular taxes?

  1. For building huge forts
  2. For maintaining big armies
  3. Both (1) and (2)
  4. None of these

Answer: 3. Both (1) and (2)

Question 8. How did herders pay taxes?

  1. Forest products
  2. Animals and animal products
  3. By labouring
  4. None of these

Answer: 2. Animals and animal products

Question 9. Why was the river Ganga important for people?

  1. For transport
  2. For water supply
  3. To make the land fertile
  4. All of these

Answer: 4. All of these

Question 10. Who could not participate in the assemblies?

  1. Women
  2. Dasas
  3. Kammakaras
  4. All of these

Answer: 4. All of these

Kingdoms Kings And An Early Republic Objective Type Questions

Question 1. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words:

1. _______ turned into mahajanapadas about 2500 years ago.
Answer: Janapadas

2. The present name of Rajgriha is _______
Answer: Rajgir

3. Alexander’s troops stopped at the banks of river _________
Answer: Beas

4. The taxes on crops were called _________
Answer: Bhaga

5. Last of the ganas were conquered by the _________
Answer: Guptas

Question 2. State whether the given statement is true or false:

1. Ashvamedha was a sacrifice of a cow.
Answer: False

2. Farmers paid 1/6th of produce as tax.
Answer: True

3. Painted grey ware is a type of house.
Answer: False

4. If the rajas allowed the horse to pass it meant they accepted the raja, owner of the house, as stronger.
Answer: True

5. Parts of Egypt and West Asia were conquered by Alexander.
Answer: True

6. Present-day Patna was earlier known as Pataliputra.
Answer: True

Question 3. Match the contents of Column A with that of Column B.

Kingdoms Kings And An Early Republic Match The Column

Answer: 1-d, 2-a, 3-c, 4-e, 5-b

 

NCERT Solutions For Class 6 History Chapter 3 In The Earliest Cities

In The Earliest Cities Exercises

Question 1. How do archaeologists know that cloth was used in the Harappan civilisation?
Answer:

  1. According to archaeologists cotton was probably grown in Mehrgarh about 7,000 years ago.
  2. Actual pieces of cloth were found attached to the lid of a silver vase and some copper objects at Mohenjodaro.
  3. Archaeologists have also found spindle whorls, made of terracotta and faience. These were used to spin thread.
  4. We also have indirect evidence to show how cloth was decorated. For example, a stone statue of an important man found at Mohenjodaro shows him wearing an embroidered garment.

Read and Learn More NCERT Solutions For Class 6 Social Science

Question 2. Match the columns

In The Earliest Cities Match The Columns

Answer:

In The Earliest Cities Math The Column

Question 3. Why were metals, writing, the wheel, and the plough important for the Harappans?
Answer:

  1. Metals: The Harappans made tools from copper. They also made ornaments from gold and silver. Tools and weapons, vessels were made from different metals.
  2. Writing: Writing was very important for the Harappans. There were scribes, people who knew how to write. Scribes helped prepare the seals and perhaps wrote on other materials that have not survived.
  3. Wheel: The Harappans used the wheel in carts. They also used wheels for spinning. The wheel was used by potters to make or shape pots and other things.
  4. Plough: Plough was used to prepare land for farming by the Harappans.

Question 4. Make a list of all the terracotta toys shown in the lesson. What do you think children would have enjoyed playing with the most?
Answer:

List Of The Terracotta Toys

  1. A toy cart made of clay.
  2. Small clay carts resembling the modern ekhas.
  3. Puppets
  4. Whistles are made in the form of birds and rattles of all kinds.
  5. Marbles
  6. Dolls
  7. Models of different cattle and animals. (Humped bull, Rhinoceros, etc.)
  8. Jewellery articles.

We think that girls would have enjoyed dolls and puppets most, while the male children would have enjoyed carts or has and rattles.

Question 5. Make a list of what the Harappans ate, and put a tick mark against the things you eat today.
Answer:

The Harappans used to eat the following articles/things

In The Earliest Cities Harappans Food Articles

Question 6. Do you think that the life of farmers and herders who supplied food to the Harappan cities was different from that of the farmers and herders? Give reasons for your answer.
Answer:

Yes, I think that the life of farmers and herders who supplied food to the Harappan cities was different from that of the farmers and herders.

  1. We know from the remains of plants and bones of animals that the contemporary farmers and herders of the Harappans grew more cereals and collected many types of fruits and other things. They grew wheat, barley, pulses, peas, rice, sesame, linseed and mustard.
  2. A new tool, the plough, was used to dig the earth for turning the soil and sowing seeds by the farmers of the Harappan times.
  3. The farmers and herders of the Indus Valley had relations with better or more civilized people who had better houses, roads, drain-system, knowledge of writing and cities. The farmers and herders of the last chapter (or Stone Age) did not know the use of metals.

Question 7. Describe three important buildings in your city or village. Are they located in a special part of the settlement (for example: The Centre)? What are the activities that take place in these buildings?
Answer:

In Our City (Or Village) The Following Three Important Buildings Are Located:

  1. Community Hall or Gram Panchayat Bhawan or Municipal Committee Bhawan
  2. School Building
  3. Hospital
  4. Temple or Mosque or Church or Gurudwara

The Following Activities Take Place In These Buildings Respectively:

NCERT Solutions For Class 6 History Chapter 3

Question 8. Are there any old buildings in your locality? Find out how old they are and who looks after them.
Answer:

Yes, there are some old buildings in our locality. These buildings are looked after by a government department. The name of this department is Archaeological Survey of India.

Question 9. Do you think it is important to preserve old buildings?
Answer:

Yes, it is important to preserve old buildings because they give us a lot of information about the material used, construction methods, need for the building etc. They help us to know about our past.

Question 10. List at least two differences between the houses.
Answer:

Houses In These Cities Were Different From Earlier Ones:

  1. These houses were planned and made of burnt bricks whereas the houses
  2. They have wells or storage places and a covered drainage system. The houses of the earlier period had partitions which could have been used for storage.
  3. Houses of these cities were 1-2 storeyed whereas earlier houses were square or rectangular with pits dug in the ground.

Question 11. Make a list of people who lived in the city.
Answer:

Rulers, scribes and crafts persons along with traders lived in the cities.

Question 12. Was metal used in the villages? Was stone used to make weights?
Answer:

No, metal was not used. Stone was not used for weights.

Question  13. How were goods carried from one place to another?
Answer:

Goods were carried through carts or boats.

In The Earliest Cities Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Write the names of the cities related to the earliest civilisation of the Indian subcontinent.
Answer:

  1. Mohenjodaro
  2. Harappa
  3. Rakhigarhi
  4. Dholavira
  5. Kalibangan
  6. Lothal

Question 2. Which was the earliest city discovered in the Indian subcontinent? Where is it situated nowadays?
Answer:

Mohenjodaro in Sindh. It is in Pakistan now.

Question 3. When were the earliest cities of the Harappan civilisation built?
Answer:

The earliest cities of Harappan civilisation were built about 4700 years ago.

Question 4. Write one major, impressive and unique feature of the earliest cities of India.
Answer:

Covered Drains was one major, impressive and unique feature of the earliest cities of India. Even now, many drains in India are open.

Question 5. By what name is the Indus Valley Civilisation now called?
Answer:

The Harappan Culture.

Question 6. Into how many parts were the cities of the Mohenjodaro and Harappa divided?
Answer:

Both cities were divided into two main parts

  1. The upper part is called the citadel.
  2. The lower part is called the lower town.

Question 7. Write two main characteristics of houses in Harappan City.
Answer:

  1. Generally, houses were either one or two storeys high with room built around a courtyard.
  2. Most houses had a separate bathing area and some had wells to supply water.

Question 8. Name the countries with whom the Harappans had trade relations.
Answer:

Oman, Afghanistan, Iran.

Question 9. Which is considered the main foreign trade centre in India during the time of Indus Valley Civilization?
Answer:

Lothal (Gujarat).

Question 10. What was Citadel?
Answer:

The westernmost part of most of the cities was higher but smaller. This was the ‘Citadel’.

Question 11. Define a “Specialist”.
Answer:

A specialist was a person who was trained to do only one kind of work like cutting stones or polishing beads etc.

In The Earliest Cities Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Describe the drain system of the Harappans.
Answer:

  1. In cities related to the Harappan civilisation, each drain had a gentle slope so that water could flow through it.
  2. Very often, drains in houses were connected to those in streets and smaller drains led to bigger ones.
  3. As the drains were covered, inspection holes were provided at intervals to clean them.
    • All three (i.e. drains, houses and streets) were probably planned and built at the same time.

Question 2.

  1. Where do we find early cities of the Indian subcontinent?
  2. What unique objects have been found by archaeologists in these cities?

Answer:

  1. The early cities of the Indian subcontinent are found in present-day Pakistan, and in India. In India, these are found in Gujarat, Rajasthan, Haryana, Western parts of U.P. and Punjab.
  2. Archaeologists have found a set of unique objects in almost all these cities:
    1. Red pottery painted with designs in black,
    2. Stone weights,
    3. Seals with writing,
    4. Special beads,
    5. Copper tools, and
    6. Long stone blades.

Question 3. Write a short note on ‘The Cattle Rearing of the Harappans.’
Answer:

The Cattle Rearing

  1. The Harappans reared cattle, sheep, goats, and buffalo.
  2. Water and pasture were available around settlements.
  3. In the dry summer months, large herds of animals were probably taken to greater distances in search of grass and water.

Question 4. Give one word for each of the following terms or sentences:

  1. The stage when the culture of a country or region is developed and advanced.
  2. Clay tablets and idols.
  3. A place where surplus grains were stored.
  4. A place where ships are loaded, unloaded and repaired.

Answer:

  1. Civilisation,
  2. Terracotta,
  3. Granaries,
  4. Dockyard.

Question 5. Describe the city of Dholavira in Gujarat.
Answer:

In The Earliest Cities City Of Dholavira In Gujarat

Question 6. Write a note on the city of Lothal.
Answer:

Lothal was situated beside a tributary of Sabarmati, close to the Gulf of Khambat.

  • Semi-precious stones were available nearby.
  • Lothal was a centre for objects made of shells, metal and stone.
  • Lothal had a storehouse in the city, where many seals were found.
  • A workshop for making beads and items from it was also found here.
  • A dockyard for loading, unloading and trade was also discovered.

Question 7. What do you know about seals and sealings?
Answer:

Seals may have been used to mark the parcels/bags, being sent from one place to another. After a bag was closed, a layer of wet clay was put on the knot and the seal was pressed on it. This impression of the seal was called sealing.

In The Earliest Cities Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Describe the main features of the Great Bath of Mohenjodaro.
Answer:

The Great Bath

  1. In Mohenjodaro, a very special tank, which archaeologists call the Great Bath, was built in its Citadel Area.
  2. This special tank was made of bricks, coated with plaster and made water-tight with a layer of natural tar.
  3. There were steps leading down to it from two sides, while there were rooms on all sides.
  4. Water was probably brought in from a well, and drained out after use.
  5. Perhaps important people took a dip in this tank on special occasions.

Question 2. Write in brief the story of Harappa’s finding.
Answer:

The Story Of Harappa

  1. About 152 years ago (1855 A.D.), when railway lines were being laid down for the first time in west Punjab engineers stumbled upon the site of Harappa in present-day Pakistan. To them, it appeared like a mound which was a rich source of ready-made, high-quality bricks.
  2. The labourers (working on railway lines) carried off thousands of bricks from the walls of the old building of the city (later named as Harappa) to construct railway lines. Many buildings were completely destroyed.
  3. Then, nearly eighty-five years ago (1920 A.D.), archaeologists found the site and realized that this was one of the oldest cities in the subcontinent. As this was the first city to be discovered.

Question 3. Discuss in brief the life in Harappa City.
Answer:

Life In The Harappa City

  1. Probably Harappa was a busy place. There were people who planned the construction of special buildings in the city. These were probably the rulers.
  2. Most probably the rulers of the Harappan city sent people to distant lands to get metal, precious stones and other things that they desired or required.
  3. The rulers may have kept the most valuable objects, such as ornaments of gold and silver or beautiful beads for themselves.
  4. And there were scribes, people who knew how to write, who helped prepare the seals and perhaps wrote (or engraved) on other materials.
  5. There were craftspersons—men and women making all kinds of things.
  6. Terracotta toys have been found and children might have played with them.

Question 4. Write a short note on the Script of the Harappan people.
Answer:

  • Historians believe that the people of the Indus Valley civilisation were literate. Many seals have been discovered. We can note lines (or symbols) of signs on the top of several seals of the Harappan people. These are parts of what historians call a script. This is the earliest form of writing known in the subcontinent.
  • Scholars have made many efforts to read these signs (or decipher the Harappan script), but we still do not know exactly what they mean.

Question 5. Describe in short different objects made and found in different Harappan cities or sites.
Answer:

  1. Materials used by the people of Harappan cities are made of stone, and metal including copper, tin, bronze, gold, silver and shell.
  2. Vessels and Ornaments. Copper and bronze were used to make vessels and ornaments.
  3. Beads. Perhaps the most striking finds are those of beads. The stone was cut, shaped, polished and finally a hole was bored through the centre so that a string could be passed through it.
  4. Weights. Stones were used to make weights. These were probably used to weigh precious stones or metals.
  5. Seals. The Harappans also made seals out of stone. These are generally rectangular and usually have animals. Bull or a Rhinoceros) carved on them.
  6. Faience. Unlike stone or shell, which are found naturally, faience is artificially produced. A gum was used to shape sand or powdered quartz into an object.
  7. Pottery. The Harappans also made pottery with beautiful designs.

Question 6. What are raw materials? How did the Harappans make their provision?
Answer:

  1. Raw Materials Meaning
    • Raw materials are substances that are either found naturally (such as wood, or ores of metals) or produced by farmers or herders.
    • These are generally processed to produce finishing goods.
    • For instance, cotton, produced by farmers, is a raw material that is processed to make cloth.
  2. Provision or Search of Raw Materials
    • While some of the raw materials that the Harappans used were available locally many items such as copper, tin, gold, silver and precious stones had to be brought from distant places.
      • The Harappans probably got copper from Rajasthan and even from Oman.
      • Tin, which was mixed with copper to produce bronze, may have been brought from Afghanistan and Iran.
      • Gold could have come all the way from Karnataka and
      • Precious stones from Gujarat, Iran and Afghanistan.

Question 7. Discuss ‘agriculture’ as an important occupation of the Harappans.
Or
How was food provided to the people in the Harappan cities?
Answer:

Agriculture of the Harappans or Food for People in the Cities

  1. While many people lived in the cities, others grew crops and reared animals.
  2. We know from the remains of plants that the Harappans grew wheat, barley, pulses, peas, rice, sesame, linseed and mustard.
  3. A new tool, the plough, was used to dig the earth for turning the soil and planting seeds.
  4. As this region does not receive heavy rainfall, some form of irrigation may have been used.
  5. Different types of cattle were also used for food supply. They also collected fruits like ber (%), caught fish and hunted wild animals like the antelope.

Question 8. What were the causes of the end of the Harappan culture?
Or
Discuss the mystery of the end of the Harappan civilization.
Answer:

The Mystery of the End of the Harappans or the Probable Causes of the downfall of the Harappan Civilisation. Nearly 3900 years ago we find the beginning of a major change in Harappan cities or sites

  1. People stopped living in many of the cities (it) Writing, seals and weights were no longer used
  2. Raw Materials brought from long distances became rare
  3. In Mohenjodaro, we find that garbage piled up on the streets, the drainage system broke down, and new, less impressive houses that were built encroached onto the streets.

Harappan culture Causes. The following causes were possibly responsible for the end of the Harappan culture

  1. Some scholars suggest that the rivers dried up.
  2. Others suggest that there was deforestation. This could have happened because fuel was required for baking bricks and for melting copper ores. Besides, grazing by large herds of cattle, sheep and goats may have destroyed the green cover.
  3. In some areas there were floods.
  4. Perhaps the rulers lost control but none of these reasons can explain the end of all the cities.

In short, we can say that we are not the same about the cultures of the end of the Harappan culture. However, flooding or a river drying up would have had an effect in only some areas.

In The Earliest Cities Multiple Choice Questions

Choose The Correct Answer:

Question 1. When did Harappan cities develop?

  1. About 4,700 years ago
  2. About 3,700 years ago
  3. About 2,700 years ago
  4. About 1,700 years ago

Answer: 1. About 4,700 years ago

Question 2. How many storeys of houses were generally found in Harappan?

  1. One or two storeys
  2. Four to five storeys
  3. Multi storeys
  4. None of these

Answer: 1. One or two storeys

Question 3. Where did the craftspeople make the things in the earliest cities?

  1. In their own homes
  2. In special workshops
  3. Both (1) and (2)
  4. None of these

Answer: 3. Both (1) and (2)

Question 4. Most of the things found by the archaeologists were made of which metal?

  1. Bronze
  2. Copper and gold
  3. Silver
  4. All of these

Answer: 4. All of these

Question 5. What was the thing used to shape sand or powdered quartz into an object?

  1. Gum
  2. Ink
  3. Nails
  4. Rubber

Answer: 1. Gum

Question 6. Which colours were used for glazing?

  1. Black or white
  2. Red or yellow
  3. Blue or sea green
  4. Pink or brown

Answer: 3. Blue or sea green

Question 7. Who supplied food to craftpersons, scribes and rulers in the cities?

  1. Local citizens
  2. Farmers and herders
  3. Postmen
  4. All of these

Answer: 2. Farmers and herders

Question 8. How did the Harappans irrigate their fields and grow plants?

  1. Rainfall
  2. Stored water
  3. Streams
  4. Rivers

Answer: 2. Stored water

Question 9. Where did the boats and ships come from from the sea and rivers?

  1. Ports
  2. Dockyards
  3. None of these
  4. Both (1) and (2)

Answer: 2. Dockyards

 

NCERT Solutions For Class 6 History Chapter 1 Introduction What Where How And When

Introduction What Where How And When Exercises

Question 1. Match the following

Introduction What Where How And When Math The Followings

Answer:

Introduction What Where How And When Match The Columns

Read and Learn More NCERT Solutions For Class 6 Social Science

Question 2. List one major difference between manuscripts and inscriptions.
Answer:

Introduction What Where How And When Differences Between Manuscripts And Inscriptions

Question 3. Return to Rasheeda’s question. Can you think of some answers to it?
Answer:

Yes, I can think of some answers to it.

  1. We can learn about the past by studying history. We can use manuscripts, inscriptions, or old objects.
  2. History will help us understand how this present evolved. It will tell us about the past of the present.

Question 4. Make a list of all the objects that archaeologists may find. Which of these could be made of stone?
Answer:

While exploring and excavating archaeologists may find tools, weapons, pots, ornaments, coins, remains of buildings, inscriptions sculptures, paintings, etc.

Out of these sculptures, building remains, could have been made of stone.

Question 5. Why do you think ordinary men and women did not generally keep records of what they did?
Answer:

We think ordinary men and women did not generally keep records of what they did due to the following reasons:

  1. Ordinary Men And Women did not know the art of writing in the beginning.
  2. Ordinary Men And Women were not interested in such work.
  3. Ordinary Men And Women do not know the importance of keeping records of the events. The lack of historical sense was mainly responsible for it.

Question 6. Describe at least two ways in which you think the lives of kings would have been different from those of farmers.
Answer:

  1. Kings set up large kingdoms and lived in palaces whereas the farmers lived in small houses or huts. There was a difference in their food, dress, and way of living.
  2. Kings depended on farmers for the production of food and at least in this matter farmers were self-dependent.
  3. Kings kept records of their lives, wars, victories, etc.

Question 7. List at least five different crafts that you know about today. Are the craftspersons

  1. Men
  2. Women
  3. Both men and women?

Answer:

  1. The Crafts That We Know About Today Are: Weavers, Blacksmiths, goldsmiths, carpenters, masons, etc.
  2. In all these crafts we find men and women both.

There are crafts like masons, plumbers, carpenters, etc. where we generally find men.

Question 8. What were the subjects on which books were written in the past? Which of these would you like to read?
Answer:

In the past books were written on subjects like religious beliefs and practices, medicine, poetry, the lives of kings and their victories, science, epics, etc. It would be interesting to read the Vedas, epics, or books about the lives of kings.

Introduction What Where How And When Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Where did the early people live?
Answer:

Early people lived along the banks of the river Narmada.

Question 2. Write the name of the region where rice was first of all grown in India.
Answer:

The region where rice was first of all grown in India is to the north of the Vindhyas.

Question 3. Name the countries that form South Asia.
Answer:

India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, Afghanistan, Iran, China Myanmar, etc. form South Asia.

Question 4. Why is South Asia called a subcontinent?
Answer:

South Asia is called a subcontinent because, although it is smaller than a continent, it is very large and is separated from the rest of Asia by seas, hills, and mountains.

Question 5. Write important historical events against the following important dates:

  1. 8,000 years ago
  2. 4,700 years ago
  3. 2,500 years ago
  4. 2,000 AD ICE

Answer:

Introduction What Where How And When Match The Important Dates And Important Events

Question 6. Distinguish between historical and pre-historical periods.
Answer:

The period for which we have written records is called historical age or period, while the period for which we have no written records is called pre-historical age or period.

Question 7. Name two main groups (or categories) of historical sources.
Answer:

  1. Archaeological sources (for example: physical remains inscriptions, coins, etc.).
  2. Literary sources (such as religious books, manuscripts, foreign, travelers’ accounts, etc.).

Question 8. Where are Sulaiman, Kirthar, and Garo Hills located?
Answer:

Sulaiman and Kirthar Hills are located in modern-day Pakistan.

Garo Hills are located in Meghalaya in north-east India.

Question 9 Which animals were reared by the people of Sulaiman and Kirthar hills?
Answer:

Sheep and goat.

Question 10. What are tributaries? Give an example.
Answer:

Tributaries are small rivers that join a bigger river, for example, Son a tributary of the Ganga.

Question 11. What was the job of religious teachers?
Answer:

The religious teachers moved from place to place and offered advice and instructions to people.

Question 12. Write about the occupations of the people of Andaman Island.
Answer:

Fishing, hunting, and collecting forest produce are the main occupations of people of the Andaman Island.

Question 13. What is the work of a historian?
Answer:

Historians find the information from manuscripts and inscriptions. They reconstruct the past from the sources that they find.

Question 14. Why do people travel nowadays?
Answer:

Nowadays people travel in search of livelihood, adventure, trade, or as a tourist.

Introduction What Where How And When Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. What can we know about the past?
Answer:

We can know several things about the past like

  1. We can find out—what people ate, the kinds of clothes they wore, the houses in which they lived.
  2. We can find out about hunters, herdsmen, farmers, rulers, merchants, priests, craftsmen, artists, artists, musicians, and scientists.
  3. We can also find out the games children played, the stories they heard, the dramas (or plays) they saw or enjoyed, and the songs they sang.

Question 2. Where did the people live in Stone Age?
Answer:

The Way of Life of the People in the Stone Age

  • Some of the earliest people lived along the banks of rivers. They were skilled gatherers.
  • They knew about the vast wealth of plants in the surrounding forests and collected roots, fruits, and other forest products for their food.
  • The people in the Stone Age also hunted animals and birds. They used to catch fish also.
  • Some of the areas where the people first began to grow crops such as wheat and barley about 8000 years ago are located in river-valley areas.

They also began rearing animals like sheep, goats, dogs, cows, horses and other cattle.

Question 3. When did the early cities develop in India?
Answer:

  • About 4700 years ago some of the earliest cities flourished on the banks of the Indus and its tributaries.
  • And other early cities developed on the banks of the Ganga and its tributaries and along the sea coasts, about 2500 years ago.

Question 4. What do you know about Magadha?
Or
Name the first largest Indian empire. Write two to three sentences about it.

Answer:

  • Magadha was the first largest empire in India.
  • The area along some of the important rivers of Northern India and to the south of the Ganga was known as Magadha.
  • Magadha rulers were very powerful. (Chandragupta Maurya, Samrat Ashoka)
  • Magadha set up a large kingdom. (Some smaller kingdoms were set up in other parts of the country as well).

Question 5. Explain the following terms in short.

  1. BC
  2. AD
  3. CE
  4. BCE
  5. Script

Answer:

NCERT Solutions For Class 6 History Chapter 1

Question 6. What types of dangers were faced by the travelers?
Answer:

  • Travelers had to face the difficult physical features of deserts, rough seas, or mountains like the Himalayas.
  • Travelers had to face the consequences of natural disasters. Most of the time people travelled in groups or caravans.

Question 7. Who are archaeologists?
Answer:

  • Archaeologists study the remains of the past, like objects, remains of buildings, etc.
  • They explore and excavate tools, weapons pots, pans, coins, etc., and study paintings and sculptures.
  • They look for the bones of animals to find what people ate in the past.

Question 8. What were the advantages of writing on a hard surface? And what were the difficulties?
Answer:

  • Inscriptions were written on hard surfaces like metal or stone.
  • Inscriptions survived the test of time as they could not be eaten away by insects.
  • Inscriptions were not destroyed by severe climate or natural calamities.
  • Inscriptions would have been difficult to inscribe on hard surfaces as it required tools and skill.

Introduction What Where How And When Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1. How did our country get its name?
Answer:

Names Of Our Country

  1. Two of the words we generally use for our country are India and Bharat. The word India comes from the Indus called Sindhu in Sanskrit.
  2. The Iranians and the Greeks who came through the northwest about 2500 years ago, were familiar with the Indus, called the Hindos or the Indos. The land to the east of the river (i.e., the Indus) is called India.
  3. The name Bharat was used by a group of people who lived in the northwest, which is also mentioned in the Rigveda, the earliest composition in Sanskrit (dated to about 3500 years ago). Later, it was used for the country.

Question 2. Briefly describe the different ways of finding out about our pasts.
Answer:

There are different ways to know about our pasts:

Introduction What Where How And When Finding Our Parts

Introduction What Where How And When Map Skills

Question 1. Locate Sulaiman, Kirthar, Garo, and Vindhyas and Trace river, river Ganga, and their tributaries.
Answer:

  1. Sulaiman, Krithar: North-west
    • Garo: Northwest
    • Vindhyas: Central INDIA
  2. Tributaries Of Indus : Jhelum, Ravi, Sultej, Beas, Chenab.
    • Tributaries of Gang : Son, Chambal

Introduction What Where How And When Indian Ocean

Introduction What Where How And When Multiple Choice Questions Choose The Correct Answer

Question 1. Which river’s bank did the people live along in the ancient time?

  1. Ganga
  2. Narmada
  3. Sutlej
  4. None of these

Answer: 2. Narmada

Question 2. Which city was established on the banks of the Ganga?

  1. Magadha
  2. Vindhyas
  3. Both (1) and (2)
  4. None of these

Answer: 1. Magadha

Question 3. How did merchants travel?

  1. With Caravans
  2. By Ships
  3. Both (1) and (2)
  4. None of these

Answer: 3. Both (1) and (2)

Question 4. From where did the Iranians and the Greeks come?

  1. North-west
  2. North-east
  3. North-south
  4. None of these

Answer: 1. North-west

Question 5. Where were the manuscripts preserved?

  1. In temples and monasteries
  2. In museums
  3. Both (1) and (2)
  4. None of these

Answer: 1. In temples and monasteries

Question 6. How did the people of the Andaman Islands get their food?

  1. By fishing
  2. By hunting
  3. By collecting the forest products
  4. All of these

Answer: 4. All of these

Question 7. What helps us to find out the records of hunters, fishing folk, etc.?

  1. Archaeology
  2. Astrology
  3. Biology
  4. All of these

Answer: 1. Archaeology

Question 8. In what ways the ancient coin was different from the ones we use today?

  1. It was made of stones
  2. It was made from baked clay
  3. It was made of bones
  4. All of these

Answer: 4. All of these

Question 9. In which language most of the manuscripts were written?

  1. Sanskrit
  2. English
  3. Hindi
  4. None of these

Answer: 1. Sanskrit

NCERT Solutions For Class 6 History Chapter 9 New Empires And Kingdoms

New Empires And Kingdoms Exercises

Question 1. State whether true or false:

1. Harishenacomposed a prashasti, in praise of Gautamiputra Shri Satakarni.
Answer: False

2. The rulers of Aryavarta brought tribute to Samudragupta.
Answer: False

3. There were twelve rulers in Dakshinapatha.
Answer: True

4. Taxila and Madurai were important centers under the control of the Gupta rulers.
Answer: False

Read and Learn More NCERT Solutions For Class 6 Social Science

5. Aihole was the capital of the Pallavas.
Answer: False

6. Local assemblies functioned for several centuries in South India.
Answer: True.

Question 2. Mention three authors who wrote about Harshavardhana.
Answer:

The Following Authors Wrote About Harshavardhana:

  1. Banabhatta
  2. Xuan Zang (Hien T-Sanga)
  3. Ravikirti

Question 3. What changes do you find in the army at this time?
Answer:

We find the following changes in the army at this time:

  1. A permanent army was kept by the king or the ruler. This was well organized.
  2. Soldiers used different kinds of weapons such as battle axes, arrows, spikes, spears, swords, etc.
  3. Elephants, chariots, and cavalry were used along with foot soldiers in the royal army.
  4. Besides, there were military leaders who provided the king the troops when the king needed them. Troops were not paid regular salaries. Instead, some of the military leaders received grants of land. They collected revenue from the land.
  5. They used this money to maintain soldiers and horses. They provided equipment for war. These men were known as samantas (WRt). Whenever the ruler was weak Samantas tried to become independent.

Question 4. What were the new administrative arrangements during this period?
Answer:

Following New Administrative Arrangements Were Noticed During This Period:

  1. Some important administrative posts were now hereditary. This means that sons succeeded fathers to these posts. For example, the poet Harishena was a maha-danda-nayaka, or chief judicial officer, like his father.
  2. Sometimes, one person held many offices. For example, besides being a maha-danda-nayaka Harishena was a kumar-amatya, meaning an important minister, and a sandhi-vigrahika meaning a minister of war and peace.
  3. Besides, important men probably had a say in local administration. These included:
    1. The nagara-shreshthi or chief banker or merchant of the city.
    2. The sarthavaha or leader of the merchant caravans, the prathama-Kulik or the chief craftsman,
    3. The head of the kayasthas or scribes.

Question 5. What do you think Arvind would have to do if he was acting as Samudragupta?
Answer:

Arvind Would Have To Do The Following Things If He Was Acting As Samudragupta:

  1. Arvind had to march solemnly in splendid robes, twirl his mustaches, and wield the silver-paper-wrapped sword with gusto.
  2. Arvind had to sit on the throne play a veena, and recite poetry.
  3. Arvind had to fight several battles.

Question 6. Do you think ordinary people would have read and understood the prashastis? Give reasons for your answer.
Answer:

I think ordinary people would have not read and understood the prashastis because they were illiterate and did not know the Sanskrit in which the prashastis were written. But they were told about prashastis by some literate persons or Brahmins.

Question 7. If you had to make a genealogy for yourself, who are the people you would include in it? How many generations would you like to show? Make a chart and fill it.
Answer:

If I Had To Make A Genealogy For Myself I Would Like To Include The Following Persons In It:

  1. Name of my great grandfather.
  2. Name of my grandfather.
  3. Name of my father and mother.
  4. The name/names of my sons/daughters.
  5. The name/names of my grandchildren.

I Would Like To Show The Following Five Generations:

  1. Great Grandfather
  2. Grandfather
  3. Parents
  4. My own name
  5. Names of my children
  6. Names of my grandchildren.

Question 8. How do you think wars affect the lives of ordinary people today?
Answer:

Today’s Wars Affect The Lives Of Ordinary People In The Following Ways:

  1. They are killed in large numbers.
  2. Their property—houses, shops, etc. are destroyed.
  3. Wars create violence and disturbances in society.
  4. Development projects and welfare works undertaken by the government for the welfare and benefit of the people are disturbed and postponed.
  5. Wars waste economic and other resources. Governments generally impose more taxes on the people.

Question 9. What was the difference between the way in which Samudragupta treated the rulers of Aryavarta and Dakshinapatha?
Answer:

Samudragupta’s policies towards Aryavarta were very strict. All the nine rulers were defeated and their kingdoms were merged in his empire. He treated the rulers of Dakshinapath in a different manner. The twelve rulers surrendered and were allowed to rule again.

Question 10. Arrange these titles in order of importance: Raja, maharaj-adhiraja, maharaja.
Answer:

  1. Maharaj-adhiraja,
  2. Maharaja,
  3. Raja.

Question 11. Look at the political map of India and list the present-day states that Harshavardhana passed through when he went

  1. To Bengal and
  2. Up to the Narmada.

Answer:

  1. Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Jharkhand
  2. Delhi, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh

Question 12. Who were the other rulers who tried to control the coasts and why?
Answer:

Cholas, Pandyas, Satavahans, and Kushanas tried to control the coasts. This was basically to control the trade route and take taxes.

Question 13. What do you think may have been the advantages and disadvantages of having hereditary officers?
Answer:

  • There were certain advantages of having hereditary officers. The officers would be loyal and trustworthy. They would maintain their territories as they would be going to their sons only.
  • On the other hand, this could mean the officers becoming more powerful in a territory and trying to set up independent kingdoms.

New Empires And Kingdoms Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Mention the names of two main historical sources of Harsha.
Answer:

  1. Harshacharita, the biography of Harshavardhana, written by his court poet, Banabhatta.
  2. Travel description of the Chinese pilgrim, Xuan Zang.

Question 2. What were prashasties?
Answer:

Prashasties were poems composed in praise of rulers by their court poets.

Question 3. Name four types of rulers described by Harishena.
Answer:

Four types of Rulers Were:

New Empires And Kingdoms Four Rulers Of Harishena

Question 4. Who wrote Harsha’s biography?
Answer:

Banabhatta wrote Harshacharita in Sanskrit.

New Empires And KingdomsShort Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Who was Samudragupta? What is the main source of history about him?
Answer:

Samudragupta was a famous ruler of a dynasty known as the Guptas.

We know about Samudragupta from a poem composed by Harishena. This was inscribed on the Ashokan pillar at Allahabad. This inscription is of the special kind known as prashasti, a word, meaning ‘ in praise of’.

The poet praised the king in glowing terms

  • As a warrior,
  • As a king who won victories in battle,
  • Who was learned and a poet.

He is also described as equal to the gods.

Question 2. Discuss about genealogies of the Gupta. Write some sentences of Chandragupta II of the Gupta dynasty.
Answer:

Genealogies of the Gupta Rules

  1. Allahabad—prashasti mentions Samudragupta’s great grandfather, grandfather, father, and mother.
    • His mother, Kumara Devi, belonged to the Lichchhavi Gana, while his father
    • Chandragupta was the first ruler of the Gupta dynasty to adopt the grand title of maharaj-adhiraja, a title that Samudragupta also used.
  2. Samudragupta in turn figures in the genealogies of later rulers of the dynasty, such as his son, Chandragupta II. We know about him from inscriptions and coins. He led an expedition to western India, where he overcame the last of the Shakas.
  3. According to later beliefs, his court was full of learned people, including Kalidas, the poet, and Aryabhata, the astronomer.

Question 3. Describe in short about Harshavardhana and the Harshacharita.
Answer:

Harshavardhana and the Harshacharita

  1. Harshavardhana ruled nearly 1400 years ago. His court poet Banabhatta, wrote his biography, The Harshacharita in Sanskrit. This gives us the genealogy of Harsha and ends with his becoming King.
  2. Xuan Zang (the Chinese Buddhist Pilgrim) spent a lot of time at Harsha’s court. He wrote in detail about Harsha.
  3. Harsha was not the eldest son of his father. He became king of Thanesar after both his father and elder brother died.

His brother-in-law was the ruler of Kanauj. When he was killed by the ruler of Bengal, Harsha took over the kingdom of Kanauj.

He then led an army against the ruler of Bengal. He was successful in the east and conquered both Magadha and Bengal.

But he was not as successful elsewhere. He tried to cross the Narmada (river) to march into the Deccan but was stopped by Pulakeshin 2.

Question 4. Write a short note on the assemblies in the Southern Kingdoms.
Answer:

The Sabha: The inscriptions (prashasties) of the Pallavas mention a number of local assemblies.

  1. These included the sabha. This was an assembly of Brahmin landowners. This assembly functioned through sub-committees, for irrigation, agricultural operations, making roads, local temples, etc.
  2. The Ur: Second important assembly in the southern kingdom was the Ur, This was a village assembly in areas where the land owners were not Brahmins.
  3. The nagaram: The third main assembly in the Southern Kingdoms was the nagaram. It was an organization of merchants. These assemblies were controlled by rich and powerful landowners and merchants.

All above mentioned local assemblies continued to function in the southern kingdoms for centuries.

New Empires And Kingdoms Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Give an account of Samudragupta as a warrior.
Answer:

Samudragupta As A Warrior:

  1. Samudragupta was a brave ruler of the Gupta dynasty.
  2. He uprooted nine rulers of Aryavarta. Their Kingdoms were made a part of his empire.
  3. Twelve rulers of Dakshinapatha surrendered to him after being defeated. He then allowed them to rule again.
  4. The rulers of Assam, Bengal, Nepal, etc. paid tributes. They followed the orders of Samudragupta. They attended his court from time to time.
  5. The rulers of the outlying areas of the subcontinent, (Perhaps present-day, Pakistan, Afghanistan, and Iran) surrendered before him. They offered their daughters for marriage.

Question 2. Discuss two important ruling dynasties in south India of Harsha’s period of north India.
Or
Describe some of the main achievements of the Pallavas and the Chalukyas.
Answer:

The Pallavas And The Chalukyas

  1. The Pallavas and Chalukyas were the most important ruling dynasties in south India during this period (i.e. Harsha’s reign in north India). The Kingdom of the Pallavas spread from the region around their capital, Kanchipuram to the Kaveri delta, while that of the Chalukyas was centered around the Raichur Doab, between the rivers Krishna and Timgabhadra.
  2. The Pallavas and Chalukyas frequently attacked one another’s areas, particularly they attacked the capital cities, which were prosperous towns.
  3. Aihole, the capital of the Chalukyas, was an important trading and commercial center. Initially, this town developed as a religious center, with a number of temples.
  4. During the days of Pulakeshin 2, the Chalukyas defeated Harsha of Kanauj and Thaneswar. But this victory was short-lived.
  5. Ultimately, both the Pallavas and the Chalukyas gave way to new rulers belonging to Rashtrakuta and Chola dynasties.

Question 3. Who was Pulakeshin II? Mention his main achievements, as described in his prasliasti.
Answer:

Pulakeshin 2 And His Prashasti:

  1. The best-known Chalukya ruler was Pulakeshin 2. We know about him from a prashasti. This prases (inscription) was composed by Pulakeshin’s (2) court poet Ravikirti. This tells us about his ancestors, who are traced back through four generations from father to son.
  2. Pulakeshin 2 evidently got the Kingdom from his uncle. According to Ravikirti, he led expeditions along both the west and the east coast.
  3. Pulakeshin 2 checked the advance of Harsha from crossing Narmada.
  4. Pulakeshin 2 also attacked the Pallava king, who took shelter behind the walls of Kanchipuram. However, the successors of Pulakeshin 2 were not very capable, and therefore the Chalukya’s victory against their political rivals was short-lived. The Chalukyas gave way to a new ruling dynasty, the Rashtrakuta.

Question 4. How were the kingdoms of northern India administered during the ages of the Guptas and the Harshavardhana?
Answer:

Administration

  1. The two main old administrative features are given as follows:
    • As in the case of earlier rulers, land revenue remained important for these rulers (of the Gupta and Vardhan dynasties), and
    • The village remained the basic unit of administration.
  2. New Developments in Administration: There were some new developments in administration. These were:
    • Support of feudal or lords. Kings adopted a number of steps to win the support of the powerful, either economically or socially or because of their political and military strength.
    • Some important administrative posts were made hereditary. The poet Harishena (writer of Allahabad-prashasti) was made a chief judicial officer, like his father.
    • Sometimes, one person held many offices. For example, besides being a maha-danda-nayaka, Harishena was a Kumar-amatya, meaning an important minister, and a Sandhi-vigrahika, meaning a minister of war and peace.
    • Besides, important men probably had a say in local administration. These included the Nagara-shreshthi or chief banker or merchant of the city, the Sarthavaha, or leader of the merchant caravans, the Prathama-Kulika, or the chief craftsman, and the head of the Kayasthas or scribes.
  3. Rise of independent kingdoms: The above-mentioned changes introduced in the administrative setup were reasonably effective but sooner or later, some of these powerful men grew strong enough to set up independent Kingdoms.

Question 5. Describe the changes that came in the army.
Answer:

  1. Some of these rulers maintained a well-organized army, with chariots, elephants, cavalry, and foot soldiers. Besides, there were military leaders who provided the rulers with troops whenever they required them.
  2. Feudal lords were not paid regular salaries. Instead, some of them received grants of land. They collected revenue from the land and used this to maintain soldiers and horses.
  3. They also provided equipment for warfare to the kings. These men were known as Samantas.
  4. Whenever the ruler was weak, Samantas tried to become independent.

Question 6. Discuss the position of the ordinary people in India in this period, being studied in this chapter (i.e., chapter 8).
Answer:

Position Of The Ordinary People Of India

  • Books of that period give us a glimpse of the lives of ordinary people of India.
  • For example, Kalidas (a great Sanskrit poet) tells us about life in the King’s court. Most Brahmins are shown as speaking Sanskrit. Women and men, other than the ruler and Brahmins, use Prakrit.
  • As per the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim, Fa Xian, some people were treated as untouchables. They were supposed to live on the outskirts of the village/city.

New Empires And Kingdoms Multiple Choice Questions

Choose The Correct Answer:

Question 1. Who was the famous ruler of a dynasty known as Guptas?

  1. Chandragupta
  2. Samudragupta
  3. Ashoka
  4. Siddhartha

Answer: 2. Samudragupta

Question 2. To which language does the term ‘prashasti’ belong?

  1. English
  2. Hindi
  3. Sanskrit
  4. Tamil

Answer: 3. Sanskrit

Question 3. What was the meaning of kumar-amatya?

  1. Minister
  2. Chief banker
  3. Scribe
  4. Judicial officer

Answer: 1. Minister

Question 4. Who wrote the biography of Harshavardhana?

  1. Surender Sharma
  2. Amir Khusro
  3. Banabhatta
  4. None of these

Answer: 3. Banabhatta

Question 5. Who tried to cross Narmada to march into Deccan?

  1. Harshavardhana
  2. Banabhatta
  3. Siddhartha
  4. Ashoka

Answer: 1. Harshavardhana

Question 6. Who was the best ruler of Chalukyas?

  1. Pulakeshin 1
  2. Pulakeshin 2
  3. Pulakeshin 3
  4. None of these

Answer: 2. Pulakeshin 2

Question 7. What was the Indian name given to Greeks and

  1. Yadavs
  2. Yavanas
  3. Javas
  4. All of these

Answer: 2. Yavanas

Question 8. Who tried to become independent when rulers became weak?

  1. So mantas
  2. Harshavardhana
  3. Ashoka
  4. Chandragupta

Answer: 1. So mantas

Question 9. Who was famous for his plays depicting life in the king’s court?

  1. Banabhatta
  2. Ravikirti
  3. Kalidasa
  4. None of these

Answer: 3. Kalidasa

Question 10. “Abhijnana – Shakuntalam” is the story of love between which king and a young woman named Shakuntala.

  1. Dushyanta
  2. Harshavardhana
  3. Ashoka
  4. Chandragupta

Answer: 1. Dushyanta

New Empires And Kingdoms Objective Type Questions

Question 1. Fill in the blanks with appropriate words.

1. Prayag prashasti was composed by _______, a court poet of _______
Answer: Harishena, Samudragupta

2. _______ was the court poet of Pulakeshin II.
Answer: Ravikirti

3. Mother of Samudragupta, Kumara Devi belonged to _________ gana.
Answer: Lichchhavi

4. Pallavas and Chalukyas were replaced by ________ and _________
Answer: Rashtrakutas, Cholas

5. Raichur Doab was between rivers ______ and _______
Answer: Krishna, Tungabhadra.

Question 2. State whether the given statement is true or false.

1. Harshvardhan’s success was checked by Harishena.
Answer: False

2. Aryabhata was an astronomer.
Answer: True

3. Xuan-Zang spent time in Harsha’s court and left an account of it.
Answer: True

4. Powerful samantas tried to become independent.
Answer: True

5. Conditions for untouchables were very good.
Answer: False.

Question 3. Match the contents of Column A with that of Column B.

New Empires And Kingdoms Match The Contents

Answer: 1-c, 2-e, 3-f, 4-a, 5-d, 6-b

New Empires And Kingdoms Map Skills

On the outline map of India locate the following:

New Empires And Kingdoms Important Cities And Kingdoms

  • Prayaga (Allahabad)
  • Mathura
  • Pataliputra (Patna)
  • Thanesar
  • Kanauj
  • Nalanda
  • Aihole
  • Kanchipuram.