Parotid Gland Anatomy Question And Answers

Parotid Region Question And Answers

Question 1. Write a note on the parotid gland.

Parotid gland

Parotid Region Location And Parts Of Parotid Gland

Parotid is derived from ‘para’, which means beside, and ‘it’ means earIt is the largest salivary gland of the body.

Situation And Extent

  • Weighs about 15–25 g and resembles the shape of an inverted pyramid
  • Situated below the external acoustic meatus and between the sternocleidomastoid and ramus of the mandible
  • Anteriorly, it overlaps the masseter and posteriorly, it overlaps the sternocleidomastoid.

Capsule Of Parotid Gland

  • The investing layer of deep fascia splits to enclose the gland and form a capsule for the gland
  • The fascia splits to superficial and deep lamina at the lower end of the parotid
  • The superficial lamina is thick and adherent to gland and is attached above to the zygomatic arch
  • The deep lamina is thin and is attached to the styloid process, tympanic plate, and mandible
  • A part of the deep lamina is thickened to form the stylomandibular ligament and it separates the parotid gland from the submandibular gland.

Parotid Region Horizontal Section To Show Relations Of Parotid Gland

Parotid Gland Parts, Surfaces, And Borders: It has a narrow base and rounded apexFour surfaces: Superfiial, superior, anteromedial, posteromedial

Three borders: medial, anterior, and posterior

  • The medial border separates the anteromedial and posteromedial surface
  • The anterior border separates the superficial and anteromedial surfaces
  • The posterior border separates the superficial and posteromedial surfaces.

Parotid Gland Relations: Apex is related to the posterior belly of the digastric and cervical branch of the facial nerve

  • Superior surface or base forms the upper end of the gland and is related to:
    • Cartilaginous part of external acoustic meatus
    • The posterior surface of the temporomandibular joint
    • Superfiial temporal vessel
    • Auriculotemporal nerve.
  • The superficial surface is related to:
    • Skin
    • Superficial fascia
    • Parotid fascia
    • Parotid lymph nodes
  • The anteromedial surface is related to:
    • Masseter
    • The lateral surface of temporomandibular joint
    • Medial pterygoid
    • Branches of the facial nerve.
  • The posteromedial surface is related to:
    • Mastoid process
    • Styloid process
  • The anterior border is related to:
    • Parotid duct
    • Terminal branches of the facial nerve
    • Transverse facial vessel
    • Accessory parotid gland
  • Posterior border is related to sternocleidomastoid
  • Medial border is related to lateral wall of the pharynx.

Contents Or Structures within Gland

  • Arteries:
    • External carotid artery enters through the posteromedial surface
    • The maxillary artery leaves through the anteromedial surface.
  • Veins:
    • The retromandibular vein is formed inside the gland
    • It divides into anterior and posterior divisions and emerges through apex.
  • Facial nerve: Enters through the upper part of posteromedial surface and divides to terminal branches which leave through anteromedial surfaceParotid lymph node.

Parotid Duct or Stenson’s Duct

  • It is a 3 cm long structure, thick­walledEmerges from middle of the anterior border and runs forwards and downwards on masseter
  • Then it runs forwards for a short distance between buccinator and oral mucosa and pierces buccal pad of fat, buccopharyngeal fasciaThn it opens at the vestibule of mouth at the level of crown of the upper 2nd molar tooth.

Parotid Gland Blood Supply

  • Arterial supply: External carotid artery and its branches within gland
  • Venous drainage: Into external jugular and internal jugular veins.

Parotid Gland Nerve Supply

  • Parasympathetic nerves are secret motor and reach glands through the auriculotemporal nerve
  • Sympathetic fibers are vasomotor and are derived from the plexus around the middle meningeal artery
  • Sensory nerves are mainly from the auriculotemporal nerve.
  • It is also innervated by fibers of the great auricular nerve.

Parotid Gland Lymphatic Drainage: Drain into parotid nodes and to upper deep cervical nodes from there.

Parotid Gland Development: Developed from buccal epithelium lateral to the angle of mouth.

Parotid Gland Applied

  • Frey’s syndrome: As a result of penetrating wounds of parotid gland, the auriculotemporal and greater auricular nerves may be damaged.
  • Since the auriculotemporal nerves contain secretomotor, sensory, and sympathetic fibers and greater auricular nerves contain sensory and pseudo-motor fibers when the nerves are damaged and regenerated, secretomotor fiers may regrow into the sensory nerve fibers supplying pain, touch, and temperature, and sympathetic fibers supplying sweat glands and blood vessels.
  • This, stimulation for salivation causes cutaneous hyperesthesia, sweating, and flushing.
  • During eating the ipsilateral cheek becomes red, hot, and painful and is associated with sweating (gustatory sweating).

Mumps (viral parotitis): It is a contagious disease caused by myxovirus and presents as an acute inflammation and swelling of gland associated with pain and fever.

  • The pain is aggravated with the movement of jaw.
  • The parotid swellings may be due to inflammation of the gland or may be due to tumors that may be benign or malignant.
  • The parotid abscess presents with slight swelling with redness of surface accompanied by excruciating pain.
  • The parotid abscess does not show fluctuation due to its unyielding capsule.

Parotid Region Multiple Choice Question And Answers

Question 1. All of the structures are pierced by parotid ducts except:

  1. Buccal pad of fat
  2. Buccinator muscle
  3. Pharyngobasilar fascia
  4. Buccopharyngeal fascia

Answer: 3. Pharyngobasilar fascia

Question 2. The parotid duct opens in the vestibule of the mouth opposite the crown of which tooth?

  1. Upper fist molar
  2. Upper second molar
  3. Upper third molar
  4. Upper fist premolar

Answer: 2. Upper second molar


Leave a Comment