Orthodontics Habits Short And Long Essay Question And Answers

Habits Definition

  • Habit
    • It is defined as the tendency towards an act that has become a repeated performance relatively fixed, consistent and easy to perform by an individual.
  • Tongue thrusting
    • It is the habit of thrusting the tongue forward against the teeth or in between while swallowing

Habits Important Notes

  • Types of mouth breathing

Orthodontics Habits Types of Mouth Breathing

  • Types of tongue thrusting
    • Type 1 – Non deforming
    • Type 2 – Deforming anterior tongue thrust
      • Sub group 1 – Anterior open bite
      • Sub group 2 – Anterior proclination
      • Sub group 3 – Posterior cross bite
    • Type 3 – Deforming lateral tongue thrust
      • Sub group 1 – Posterior open bite
      • Sub group 2 – Posterior cross bite
      • Sub group 3 – Deep over bite
    • Type 4 – Deforming anterior and lateral tongue thrust
      • Sub group 1 – Anterior and Posterior open bite
      • Sub group 2 – Proclination of anterior
      • Sub group 3 – Posterior cross bite
    • Simple Classification:
      • Simple tongue thrust
      • Complex tongue thrust
  • Long face syndrome – features
    • Short and flaccid upper lip
    • Constricted upper arch
    • Frequent occurrence of tonsillitis
    • Allergic rhinitis
    • Otitis media
    • Anterior marginal gingivitis
  • Features of thumb sucking
    • Proclination of maxillary anteriors
    • SNA angle is increased
    • Anterior open bite
    • Narrow and long maxillary arch
    • Hypotonic upper lip

Habits Long Essays

Question 1. Define and classify malocclusion. Describe in detail role of lip biting habit in development of malocclusion.
Answer.

Malocclusion: Any deviation from normal occlusion is called malocclusion

Classification Of Malocclusion:

Intra-arch Malocclusion: Includes variations in individual tooth position and affecting that of group of teeth within an arch

  • Distal tipping: Crown of tooth is tilted distally
  • Mesial tipping: Crown of tooth is tilted mesially
  • Buccal tipping: Crown of tooth is tilted labially
  • Palatal tipping: Crown of tooth is tilted palatally
  • Mesial displacement: Bodily movement of tooth is mesial direction
  • Distal displacement: Bodily movement of tooth is distal direction
  • Buccal displacement: Bodily movement of tooth bucally
  • Lingual displacement: Bodily movement of tooth lingually
  • Infra occlusion: Tooth has not erupted enough as compared to other teeth in the arch
  • Supra occlusion: Tooth has over erupted as compated to other teeth in the arch
  • Rotations: Tooth movement around its long axis
  • Disto-lingual/Mesio-buccal rotation: Movement of tooth around its long axis such that distal aspect is more lingually placed
  • Mesio-lingual/Disto-buccal rottion: Movement of tooth around its long axis such that mesial aspect is more lingually placed
  • Transposition: Two teeth have exchanged their places.

Inter-Arch Malocclusion

  • Includes abnormal relationship between two teeth or groups of teeth of one arch to other arch.

Sagittal Plane Malocclusion:

  • Pre-normal occlusion – Mandible is forwardly placed when the patient bites in centric occlusion
  • Post-normal occlusion – Mandible is distally placed when the patient bites in centric occlusion

Vertical Plane Malocclusion:

  • Deep bite
  • Open bite

Transverse Plane Malocclusion:

  • Cross bite

Skeletal Malocclusion:

  • Occur due to abnormalites in maxilla/mandible
    • Sagittal Plane
      • Prognathism – forwardly placement of jaw
      • Retrognathism – backwardly placement of jaw
    • Transverse Plane
      • Narrowing of jaw
      • Widening of jaw
  • Vertical Plane – Effecting lower facial height

Lip Biting Habit

  • Lip biting often involves the lover lip that is turned inwards
  • Due to it pressure is exerted on the lingual surfaces of maxillary anteriors

Features

  • Proclined upper anteriors and retroclined lower anteriors
  • Hypertrophic and redundant lower lip
  • Cracking of lip

Skeletal Malocclusion Management

  • Use of lip bumpers
    • To keep lips away
    • To improve axial inclination of the anterior teeth

Question 2. Define malocclusion. Classify etiology of it. Dicuss clinical picture and management of thumb sucking habit.
Answer.

Malocclusion: Any deviation from normal occlusion is called malocclusion

Etiology Of Malocclusion:

Classification Of Malocclusion: Graber’s classification

General Factors:

  • Hereditary
  • Congenital
  • Environment – Prenatal, Postnatal

Read And Learn More: Orthodontics Short And Long Essay Question And Answers 

  • Metabolic
  • Nutritional
  • Habits
  • Posture
  • Trauma and accidents

Local Factors:

  • Anomalies of number
  • Anomalies of tooth size
  • Anomalies of tooth shape
  • Abnormal labial frenum
  • Abnormal eruptive path
  • Premature loss of deciduous
  • Prolonged retention of deciduous
  • Delayed eruption of permanent teeth
  • Ankylosis
  • Dental caries
  • Improper dental restoration

Thumb Sucking Habit:

Clinical Features:

  • Labial tipping of maxillary anteriors
  • Proclination of maxillary anteriors
  • Increased overjet
  • Lingual tipping of mandibular anteriors
  • Anterior open bite
  • Supra eruption of posteriors
  • Narrowing of maxillary arch
  • Hypotonic upper lip
  • Hyperactive mentalis activity

Etiology Of Malocclusion Management:

  • Psychological approach
    • Dunlops Beta hypothesis
    • Dunlop suggests that the child should be asked to sit in front of mirror and to suck his thumb
    • This becomes effective when the child is asked to do it when he is engaged in an enjoyable activity
  • Mechanical aids
    • Habit breaking appliances
      • Passive removable appliances are
      • Palatal crib and clasps on posteriors creates interference during habit
    • Fixed appliances
      • Bands on molars fabricated by heavy guage stainless steel wire

Orthodontics Habits Habit breakers used in the management of thumb sucking and tongue thrusting

    • Other aids
      • Bandaging the thumb
      • Bandaging of elbow
  • Chemical aids:
    • Pepper
    • Quinine
    • Asafoetida

Question 3. Define habits, classify and discuss tongue thrust habits, its clinical features and its treatment.
Answer.

Habit: It is defined as the tendency towards an act that has become a repeared performance relatively fixed, consistent and easy to perform by an individual.

Tongue Thrust Habit:

Classification Of Tongue Thrust Habit:

  • Type 1: Non deforming
  • Type 2: Deforming anterior tongue thrust
    • Sub group 1 – Anterior open bite
    • Sub group 2 – Anterior proclination
    • Sub group 3 – Posterior cross bite
  • Type 3 – Deforming lateral tongue thrust
    • Sub group 1 – Posterior open bite
    • Sub group 2 – Posterior cross bite
    • Sub group 3 – Deep over bite
  • Type 4 – Deforming anterior and lateral tongue thrust
    • Sub group 1 – Anterior and Posterior open bite
    • Sub group 2 – Proclination of anterior
    • Sub group 3 – Posterior cross bite

Simple Classification:

  • Simple tongue thrust
  • Complex tongue thrust

Clinical Features Of Tongue Thrust Habit:

  • Simple Tongue thrust:
    • Normal tooth contact during swallowing
    • Anterior lip seal
    • Good intercuspation
    • Anterior open bite
    • Abnormal mentalis activity
  • Complex Tongue Thrust:
    • During swallowing, teeth are apart
    • Absence of temporal muscle constriction
    • Poor occlusion
    • Contraction of circumoral muscles during swallowing

Other Features

  • Anterior proclination
  • Anterior open bite
  • Bimaxillary protrusion
  • Posterior open bite
  • Posterior cross bite

Tongue Thrust Habit Management

Habit Interception:

  • Habit breaking appliances removable cribs/rakes are fabricated which creates interference during habit.
  • Teach the correct method of swallowing
  • Muscle exercises

Treatment of malocclusion: By removable/fixed orthodontic appliances.

Orthodontics Habits Habit breakers used in the management of thumb sucking and tongue thrusting

Habits Short Essays

Question 1. Habits.
Answer.

Definition: It is defined as the tendency towards an act that has become a repeated performance relatively fixed, consistent and easy to perform by an individual.

Classification Of Habits:

  • According to William James
    • Useful habits – include habits essential for normal function
    • Harmful habits – habits that have deleterious effects
  • Empty and Meaningful Habits:
    • Empty habits – not associated with psychological problems
    • Meaningful – associated with psychological bearing
  • Pressure, non-pressure and bitting habits:
    • Pressure habits – thumb sucking, lip sucking, tongue thrusting
    • Non-pressure habtis – mouth breathing
    • Biting habits – nail biting
  • Compulsive:
    • Deep rooted habits

Non-Compulsive – Learned Habits

Etiology:

  • Anatomical – Ex. Posture of tongue
  • Pathological – Ex. Tonsilitis
  • Emotional – Ex. Digit sucking
  • Imitation
  • Random behaviour
  • Equilibrium theory

Question 2. Habit Breaking Appliances.
Answer.

  • Thumb sucking:
    • Removable:
      • Tongue spikes
      • Tongue guards
      • Blue glass appliance
      • Spurs rakes
  • Fixed:
    • Quad helix
    • Hay rakes
    • Palatal crib
  • Bruxism: Night guards
  • Mouth breathing: Oral screen

Question 3. Mouth Breathing.
Answer.

Classification Of Mouth Breathing:

  • Based on etiology
    • Obstructive – Due to nasal obstruction
    • Habitual – Even after removal of obstruction
    • Anatomic – Due to lip morphology

Clinical Features:

  • Extra-oral
    • Long, narrow face, blank face
    • Narrow nose
    • Short upper lip
  • Intra-oral:
    • Constricted maxillary arch
    • Increased overjet, anterior Open bite
    • Anterior marginal gingivitis
    • Dryness of mouth

Diagnosis Of Mouth Breathing:

  • Clinical examination – Fogging of mouth mirrors
  • Cephalometrics – shows long face
  • Rhinomanometry – to assess nasal passage

Mouth Breathing Management:

  • Removal of nasal obstruction – By surgery
  • Interception of habit – By vestibular screen
    • RME – Decreases nasal air resistance

Question 4. Sucking and Suckling.
Answer.

Suckling:

  • It is a natural process of breast feeding
  • Here, nipple is drawn into mouth. Tongue lies between lower gum pad and nipple
  • Creates negative pressure
  • Milk passes between faucial pillars and lateral channels of pharynx
  • Cheek muscles plays an important role in it
  • They contract while suckling, thus good development of muscle occurs

Sucking:

  • It is bottle feeding
  • Through it milk is sucked easily with less effort
  • Thus cheek muscles does not have to work more
  • This results in under development of cheek muscles
  • May lead to malocclusion

Habits Short Questions And Answers

Question 1. Simple and complex tongue thrust
Answer.

  • Simple Tongue thrust
    • Normal tooth contact during swallowing
    • Anterior lip seal
    • Good intercuspation
    • Anterior open bite
    • Abnormal mentalis activity
  • Complex Tongue Thrust:
    • During swallowing, teeth are apart
    • Absence of temporal muscle constriction
    • Poor occlusion
    • Contraction of circumoral muscles during swallowing

Question 2. Etiology of tongue thrust.
Answer.

  • Genetic factors – Hypertonic orbicularis oris
  • Learned behaviour – Habitual
  • Maturational – Retained infantile swallowing
  • Mechanical restriction – Macroglossia
  • Neurological disturbance – Hyposensitive palate
  • Psychogenic factors – Discontinuation of other habits

Question 3. Habits.
Answer.

It is defined as the tendency towards an act that has become a repeated performance relatively fixed, consistent an easy to perform by an individual.

Etiology Of Habits:

  • Anatomical – Ex. Posture of tongue
  • Pathological – Ex. Tonsilitis
  • Emotional – Ex. Digit sucking
  • Imitation
  • Random behaviour
  • Equilibrium theory

Question 4. Mouth breathing habit.
Answer.

Clinical Features:

  • Extra-oral:
    • Long, narrow face, blank face
    • Narrow nose
    • Short upper lip
  • Intra-oral:
    • Constricted maxillary arch
    • Increased overjet, anterior Open bite
    • Anterior marginal gingivitis
    • Dryness of mouth

Mouth Breathing Habit Management:

  • Removal of nasal obstruction – By surgery
  • Interception of habit – By vestibular screen
  • RME – Decreases nasal air resistance

Habits Viva Voce

  • Psychologic management should be done prior to using mechanical aids while treating thumb sucking
  • Psychological stress is most common cause of bruxism
  • Presence of clean nails and callus on finger is commonly associated with thumb sucking
  • Femite liquid applied on the thumb and nail of child discourage sucking
  • Long face syndrome is associated with mouth breathers

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