Etiology Of Malocclusion Question And Answers

Etiology Of Malocclusion Important Notes

Causes of malocclusion:

  • General Factors:
    • Hereditary
    • Congenital
    • Environment – Prenatal, Postnatal
    • Metabolic
    • Nutritional
    • Habits
    • Posture
    • Trauma and accidents
  • Local Factors:
    • Anomalies of number
    • Anomalies of tooth size
    • Anomalies of tooth shape
    • Abnormal labial frenum
    • Abnormal eruptive path
    • Premature loss of deciduous
    • Prolonged retention of deciduous
    • Delayed eruption of permanent teeth
    • Ankylosis
    • Dental caries
    • Improper dental restoration

Orthodontics Etiology Of Malocclusion Malocclusion Etiology

  • Acromegaly features
    • Accelerated development of mandible
    • Hypercementosis
    • Macroglossia
    • Early eruption of dentition

Etiology Of Malocclusion Long Essays

Question 1. Classify various factors in etiology of malocclusion. Elaborate on endocrinal factors.
Answer.

Classification Of Etiology of Malocclusion: Graber’s classification

General Factors:

  • Hereditary
  • Congenital
  • Environment – Prenatal, Postnatal
  • Metabolic
  • Nutritional
  • Habits
  • Posture
  • Trauma and accidents

Local Factors:

  • Anomalies of number
  • Anomalies of tooth size
  • Anomalies of tooth shape
  • Abnormal labial frenum
  • Premature loss of deciduous
  • Prolonged retention of deciduous
  • Delayed eruption of permanent teeth
  • Ankylosis
  • Dental caries
  • Improper dental restoration

Endocrinal Imbalance Causing Malocclusion:

Disorders and their features:

Orthodontics Etiology Of Malocclusion Disorders and Features

Question 2. Discuss local of malocclusion./Discuss the environmental or local causes of malocclusion in detail.
Answer.

Local Causes:

Anomalies in number of teeth:

  • Normal no. of teeth should be present
  • Extra/missing teeth creates malocclusion

Orthodontics Etiology Of Malocclusion Extra And Missing Teeth

  • Anomalies of Tooth size: For normal occlusion harmony between tooth size and arch length must be present

Orthodontics Etiology Of Malocclusion Anomalies of Tooth Size

  • Anomalies of Tooth shape:

Orthodontics Etiology Of Malocclusion Anamolies of Tooth Shape

  • Abnormal labial frenum: High frenal attachment of maxillary labial frenum causes midline diastema
  • Premature loss of deciduous:
    • Effects: Migration of adjacent teeth
      • Prevent eruption of permanent successor
      • May lead to impaction
  • Prolonged retention of deciduous teeth:
    • Effects: Prevent eruption of permanent
      • Abnormal eruptive path
  • Delayed Eruption of Permanent:
    • Causes:
      • Congenital
      • Supernumerary teeth
      • Mucosal barrier
      • Premature loss of deciduous
      • Endocrinal disorder
      • Root fragments of deciduous
  • Abnormal Eruptive path:
    • Causes:
      • Supernumerary teeth
      • Impacted teeth
      • Retained deciduous
      • Bony barrier
  • Ankylosis:
    • Root surface is directly fused to bone
    • Absence of PDL
    • Causes:
      • Trauma
      • Infections
      • Congenital
      • Endocrinal disorders
    • Effects:
      • Causes submerge of teeth
      • Migration of adjacent teeth
  • Dental Caries:
    • Effects:
      • Premature loss of deciduous
      • Migration of adjacent
      • Decrease in arch length

Read And Learn More: Orthodontics Short And Long Essay Question And Answers 

      • Abnormal axial inclination
      • Supra-eruption of opposing teeth
  • Improper Dental Restoration:
    • Over contoured
      • Effects:
        • Functional shift of mandible
    • Under-contoured
      • Effects:
        • Supra-eruption of opposing teeth
        • Loss of arch length
        • Food lodgement
        • Periodontal weakening of teeth

Etiology Of Malocclusion Short Questions And Answers

Question 1. Ankylosis.
Answer.

  • Root surface is directly fused to bone
  • Absence of PDL

Causes Of Ankylosis:

  • Trauma
  • Infections
  • Congenital
  • Endocrinal disorders

Effects Of Ankylosis:

  • Causes submerge of teeth
  • Migration of adjacent teeth

Question 2. Abnormal labial frenum.
Answer.

  • Abnormalities of maxillary labial frenum are quite often associated with maxillary midline spacing
  • Rarely a heavy fibrous frenum is found attached to the interdental papilla region
  • This can prevent the two maxillary central incisors
  • Diagnosed by positive blanch test
  • A midline IOPA or occlusal radiograph exhibits notching of the interdental alveolar crest

Question 3. Supernumerary teeth.
Answer.

Morphology: Different or resemble normal tooth (supplemental)

Size: Common in males

Site: Common in maxilla

Syndrome: Associated

  • Cleidocranial dysplasia
  • Gardener syndrome

Types Of Supernumeraty teeth:

  • Mesiodens: Between central incisors
  • Result: Midline spacing
  • Distomolar: Beyond 3rdmolar
  • Paramolar: In region of molar

Causes Of Supernumerary teeth:

  • Non-eruption of adjacent teeth
  • Deflect eruption
  • Crowding
  • Risk of cyst formation

Question 4. Prolonged retention of deciduous teeth.
Answer.

  • Prolonged retention of anterior teeth
    • Results in lingual or palatal eruption of their permanent successors
  • Prolonged retention of posterior teeth
    • Results in eruption of permanent teeth either bucally or lingually or remain impacted

Question 5. Premature loss of deciduous teeth.
Answer.

  • It refers to loss of a tooth before its permanent successor is sufficiently advanced in development and eruption to occupy its place
  • It can cause migration of adjacent teeth into the place and can therefore prevent the eruption of the permanent successor
  • Severity of malocclusion depends on
    • Premature loss of deciduous molars leading to shifting of adjacent teeth into space
    • Early extraction of deciduous teeth
    • Person with arch length deficiency and crowdling

Question 6. Prenatal causes of malocclusion.
Answer.

Prenatal causes of malocclusion:

  • Abnormal fetal posture during gestation
  • Maternal fibroids
  • Amniotic lesions
  • Maternal diet
  • Maternal metabolism
  • Maternal infections like German measles
  • Teratogenic drugs

Question 7. Blanch Test.
Answer.

Use Of Blanch Test: For detection of high frenal attachment

Steps:

  • Step 1: Upper lip is stretched
  • Step 2: Upper lip is pulled outward and forward
  • Step 3: Blanching seen beside the papilla
  • Step 4: IOPA is taken i.r.t. 11 & 21

Etiology Of Malocclusion Viva Voce

  • Early loss of deciduous teeth can cause migration of adjacent teeth into the space and thus prevent the eruption of permanent succesor
  • Extra teeth in relation to the normal teeth is called supernumerary teeth
  • Mesiodens are supernumerary teeth present between two central maxillary incisors
  • Mesiodens are most common type of supernumerary teeth
  • Supernumerary teeth present distal to the last molar is called distomolar
  • Anamalous structure projecting from cingulum of maxillary permanent incisors is called Talon’s cusp
  • Fusion occurs through union of two normally separated tooth gem
  • Germination arises from division of single tooth germ
  • Concrescence is fusion of teeth after completion of root formation
  • Presence of notching and positive blanch test is diagnostic of abnormal thick labial frenum.

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