Allergic And Immunological Diseases Of Oral Cavity Essay Question And Answers

Allergic And Immunological Diseases Of Oral Cavity Important Notes

  1. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis
    • It is a common disease characterized by the development of painful recurring solitary or multiple ulceration of the oral mucosa
    • Recurrent aphthous stomatitis Etiology
      • Bacteria – alpha-hemolytic streptococci, strep. Sanguis
      • Genetic factors
      • Immunologic abnormality
      • Iron, vitamin B12, folic acid deficiency
      • Allergic factors
      • Trauma
      • Endocrine factors
      • Psychic
      • Systemic disease – Behcet’s syndrome, cyclic neutropenia, HIV infection
    • Recurrent aphthous stomatitis Classification
      • Recurrent aphthous minor
      • Recurrent aphthous major
      • Recurrent Herpetiform ulceration
      • Recurrent ulcers associated with Behcet’s syndrome
    • Recurrent aphthous stomatitis Clinical features
      • Presence of small nodules
      • Burning sensation
      • Erythema
      • General edema of the oral cavity
      • Paraesthesia
      • Malaise
      • Low-grade fever
      • Local lymphadenopathy
      • Vesicle-like lesions containing mucus
      • Ulcer-presenting features
        • Single/multiple erosions
        • Covered by grey membrane
        • Has necrotic center with clearly defined raised margins surrounded by erythematous halo
        • Painful
        • Interferes with eating and speech
        • f.No -1-100
        • Size – 2-3 mm to 10 mm in diameter

Allergic And Immunological Diseases Of Oral Cavity Short Question And Answers

Question 1. Contact Stomatitis

Contact Stomatitis

  • Contact stomatitis is an allergic reaction due to local application or contact with certain drugs, foods, restorative materials, gentrifies, etc.
  • It can be acute or chronic

Contact Stomatitis Cause:

  • Antigen-antibody reaction at the site of contact

Contact Stomatitis Treatment:

  1. In mild cases
    • Removal of suspected allergens
    • Antihistamines along with topical anesthetic agents
  2. In chronic cases
    • Removal of the antigenic source
    • Application of topical corticosteroids like fluocinonide or dexamethasone elixir

Question 2. Histamines


  • Histamine is an amine of the tissues present in all the tissues of the body in an inactive or bound form
  • It is liberated as active histamine during
    • Injury to tissues
    • Antigen-antibody reaction
  • It is destructed by antihistaminic drugs

Contact Stomatitis Actions:

  • Vasodilatation
  • Increases vascular permeability
  • Causes itching and pain
  • Constricts the smooth muscles of the bronchi

Question 3. Immunoglobulin


Immunoglobulin is defined as a protein of animal origin endowed with known antibody activity

Immunoglobulin Synthesis:

  • They are synthesized by plasma cells and lymphocytes

Immunoglobulin Structure: Immunoglobulin consists of

  1. Two heavy chains
  2. Two light chains
  • Variable mg ion Is present at the amino terminus while constant region is present at the carboxy-terminal
  • Rased on heavy chains, immunoglobulins are deed filed Into 5 classes
  • Light chains In all classes are Kappa and Lambda

Allergic And Immunological Diseases Of Oral Cavity Immunoglobulin

Question 4. Anitschkow cells

Anitschkow cells

  • Wood and his associates have described characteristic changes In the nuclei of epithelial cells taking cytological smears from around recurrent aphlhousulers
  • These are referred to as Anitschkow cells
  • It consists of cells with elongated nuclei containing a linear bar of chromatin with radiating processes of chromatin extending toward the nuclear membrane
  • Its Ultrastructure has been described by Haley and his associates
  • They found that the nuclear chromatin was made up of pleomorphic masses forming an irregular band along the long axis of the nucleus
  • Anitschkow cells are also found in patients with
    • Sickle cell disease
    • Megaloblastic anemia
    • Iron deficiency anemia
    • In children receiving chemotherapy for cancer
    • Normal persons

Read And Learn More: Oral Pathology Questions and Answers

Question 5. Delayed hypersensitivity

Delayed hypersensitivity

  • Delayed hypersensitivity reaction is mediated by sensitized T-lymphocytes
  • It cannot be passively transferred by serum but can be transferred by lymphocytes or the transfer factor

Delayed hypersensitivity Pathogenesis:

Allergic And Immunological Diseases Of Oral Cavity Delayed Hypersensitivity

Delayed hypersensitivity Types:

  1. Tuberculin type
  2. Contact dermatitis type

Question 6. Antischkow cell

Antischkow cell

  • Present in recurrent aphthous ulcer
  • Characteristic features are
  • Elongated nuclei
  • Linear bar of chromatin
  • Few radiating processes extend toward the nuclear membrane

Allergic And Immunological Diseases Of Oral Cavity Viva Voce

  1. Anitschkow cells are characteristic cells of recurrent aphthous ulcer
  2. Behcet’s syndrome consists of oral and genital ulceration, ocular lesions, and skin lesions
  3. Reiter’s syndrome is associated with urethritis, Balanitis, conjunctivitis, and mucocutaneous lesions
  4. Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous disease of unknown origin characterized by the formation of uniform, discrete, compact, noncaseating epithelioid granuloma
  5. Angioedema is a diffuse oedematous swelling of the skin, mucosa, and submucosal connective tissue
  6. The allergic reaction of the skin is called dermatitis medicamentosa
  7. Contact stomatitis is a type of reaction in which a lesion of the skin or mucous membrane occurs at a localized site after repeated contact with the causative agent
  8. Wegener’s granulomatosis is a disease with urn known etiology that involves the vascular, renal, and respiratory systems.

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