Oral Radiology Miscellaneous Question And Answers

Oral Radiology Miscellaneous Short Essays

Question 1. Mass disaster
Answer.

Mass disaster

  • With the complete reform of interstate and international travel, accidents are high and causing most of the disasters worldwide
  • In the analysis of these incidences where children often become victims, the task of identification is very complicated
  • The vast number of victims who are burnt, decomposed, and mutilated can be overwhelming
  • These can be systemically examined and identified by the dentist

Question 2. Sunray appearance
Answer.

Sunray appearance

  • It is a radiographic feature of larger lesions
  • It may cause cortical expansion with radiating spicules at the expanding perphery
  • This results in the sunray appearance of the lesions
  • It is seen in
    • Osteosarcoma
    • Hemangioma
    • Osteoblastoma

Question 3. Moth-eaten appearance
Answer.

Moth-eaten appearance

  • It is seen as radiolucent areas
  • These areas enlarge
  • Outline is irregular
  • It gets separated by islands of normal-appearing bone
  • This is due to the enlargement of medullary spaces and widening of Volkmann’s canals, secondary to lysis of bone and replacement with granulation tissue
  • It is seen in
    • Early stage of osteosarcoma
    • Squamous cell carcinoma
    • Osteomyelitis
    • Leukemia
    • Malignant lymphoma

Oral Radiology

Question 4. Fracture of teeth
Answer.

Types

  • Concussion:
    • There is a widening of periodontal ligament space at the apex
    • Presence of pulpal necrosis and periapical lesion
  • Luxation:
    • Refers to dislocation or loosening of teeth due to loss of periodontal attachment
    • It can be
      • Intrusive
      • Extrusive
      • Lateral
    • Features:
      • Disruption of continuity of lamina dura in the apical region
      • Widening of periodontal ligament space in the periapical region
      • Presence of pulpal necrosis or calcification of pulp chamber
  • Avulsion:
    • Refers to complete displacement of tooth from its socket
    • Radiographically it shows an empty socket

Radiographic Changes In Fracture Of Teeth:

  • The radiolucent line between tooth segments
  • Displacement of tooth fragments
  • Disruption of the continuity of the tooth surface
  • In case of root fracture, there may be a radiolucent line transversing the midportion of the tooth suggestive of fracture

Question 5. Lacerated wounds
Answer.

Features:

  • Margins are irregular, ragged, and uneven and their extremities are pointed or blunt.
  • Bruising is seen either in the skin or the subcutaneous tissues around the wounds
  • Deeper tissues are unevenly divided with tags of tissue at the bottom of the wound bridging across the margin.
  • Hair bulbs are crushed.
  • Hemorrhage is less because the arteries are crushed and torn across irregularly.
  • Foreign matter may be found in the wound.
  • Depth varies according to the thickness of the soft parts and the degree of force applied.
  • A laceration is usually curved.
  • The skin on the side of the wound opposite to direction of force is usually torn free or undermined.

Question 6. Contrast radiography
Answer.

Contrast radiography

  • Contrast radiography is a method of studying body organs using X-rays and the administration of a special dye, called contrast medium.
  • The contrast medium will highlight the specific areas in the body and help them to be seen in greater X-ray on the x-ray image.
  • Contrast medium can be given in different ways, depending on what organ or tissue needs to be examined.
  • This test allows us to evaluate these structures that are not clear on conventional x-ray exams.

Types:

  • Various types of contrast radiography are given for different reasons.
    • Intravenous pyelography, or IVP,
      • Allows to examine the urinary system, including kidneys, ureters, and bladder, and identify tumors, cysts, and stones.
    • Upper GI (gastrointestinal) and small bowel series
      • Used to examine your esophagus, stomach, and upper small intestine and identify ulcers, obstructions, tumors, or inflammations.
    • A barium enema, also called a lower GI series
      • Used to examine your colon and rectum and detect polyps, cancer, inflammation, and diverticula [pouches within the colon].
    • ¬†Angiography
      • Angiograexaminationows to examination of blood vessels and various organs to detect obstructions, tumors, and other problems in the heart, lungs, kidneys, arms, and legs.
    • Cardiac catheterization
      • Used to evaluate the heart and its vessels.

Question 7. Professional negligence
Answer.

Professional negligence

  • Professional negligence is a common law tort and broadly occurs when a professional fails to perform his responsibilities to the required standard.
  • Professional negligence claims have become more common in recent years.
  • This is due to a combination of factors including an increasing reliance upon professional advice, the complexity of work carried out, and a raised awareness of legal rights.
  • Professional negligence is a subset of the general rules on negligence to cover the situation in which the defendant has represented him or herself as having more than average skills and abilities.
  • The usual rules rely on establishing that a duty of care is owned by the defendant to the claimant, and that the defendant is in breach of the duty.
  • The standard test of breach is whether the defendant has matched the abilities of a reasonable person.
  • This specialized set of rules determines the standards against which to measure the legal quality of the services delivered by those who claim to be among the best in their fields of expertise.

Question 8. Child abuse
Answer.

Definition:

  • It is defined as the non-accidental physical injury, minimal or fatal, inflicted upon children by persons caring for them
  • It is an overact of commission of a physical, emotional, or sexual

Read And Learn More: Oral Radiology Question and Answers

Types:

  • Physical abuse
  • Educational abuse
  • Emotional abuse
  • Sexual abuse
  • Failure to thrive
  • International drugging or poisoning
  • Munchausen syndrome by proxy

Characteristics:

  • There are no spontaneous smiles and almost no eye contact among abused children
  • Lack of cleanliness
  • Presence of short stature concerning age
  • Malnutrition
  • Overdressed children
  • Periorbital ecchymosis, scleral hemorrhage, ptosis, deviated nasal septum, cigarette burn marks and hand slap marks
  • Fractured anterior teeth

Short Answers

Question 1. Bite marks
Answer.

Definition:

  • It is a mark caused by teeth alone or in combination with other oral parts or consists of teeth marks produced by the antagonist teeth which can be as two opposing arch marks

Classification:

  • Depending on the blinding agent
    • Human
    • Animals
    • Mechanical
  • Depending on the material bitten
    • Skin
    • Perishable items
    • Non-perishable items
  • Depending on the degree of biting
    • Definite bite marks
    • Amorous bite marks
    • Aggressive bite marks

Characteristics:

  • An elliptical or ovoid pattern containing tooth and arch marks
  • Presence of 4-5 teeth marks reflecting the shape of their incisal or occlusal surfaces
  • The presence or absence of each tooth
  • The peculiar shape of each tooth
  • Mesiodistal dimensions
  • Arch form and size
  • Relationship between the upper and lower jaws

Question 2. Battered baby syndrome
Answer.

Battered baby syndrome

  • It is a disease in which children are physically abused.
  • The battered child syndrome is a form of child abuse
  • It is a child who shows clinical or radiographic evidence of lesions that are frequently multiple and involve mainly the head, soft tissues, long bones, and thoracic cage and cannot be unequivocally explained

Question 3. Identification and aging of the dead from teeth
Answer.

Identification and aging of the dead from teeth

  • Some of the common identifying features of teeth are examined
  • They are:
  • Faulty development
  • Faulty alignment
  • Localized wear on certain teeth
  • Missing teeth
  • Aging is determined by
  • Root calcification
  • Stages of eruption

Question 4. Scope of Forensic Dentistry
Answer.

Scope of Forensic Dentistry

  • Forensic dentistry is one of the most rapidly developing branches of forensic medicine
  • It plays an important role in helping forensic experts identify the affected victims or criminals
  • It contributes to supporting families to enable them to care for children more adequately and the society to develop sensitivity and skills for respectful and healthy personal relationship

Question 5. Determination of age in forensic dentistry
Answer.

Age is determined by

  • Visual observation
    • Stages of eruption of dentition are looked for
    • Attrition of teeth with increasing age is used
  • Radiography
    • Provide gross information on dental development of dentition
  • Histological
    • Determines the stage of development of the dentition
  • Physical and chemical analysis
    • Determine alterations in levels with age

Question 6. Sex determination
Answer.

Sex determination

  • Identification of sex can be determined by
    • Examining the sexual organs of the victims or their secondary sexual characteristics
    • Examine sex chromosome
    • Identification of Bar body in buccal smear

Oral Radiograph Miscellaneous Sex determination

Question 7. Lip prints
Answer.

. Lip prints

  • Lip prints are used as an identification aid
  • Minor differences have been observed between the right and left sides and between upper and lower lips
  • Lip prints on drinking glasses, facial tissues, and magazines have been used as evidence in actual court cases also
  • The science of examining lip prints is called coloscopy

Types Of Lip Prints:

  • Vertical
  • Branched
  • Intersected
  • Reticular pattern

Question 8. Coolidge’s tube
Answer.

Coolidge’s tube

  • In 1913, William David Coolidge invented the Coolidge tube, an X-ray tube with an improved cathode for use in X-ray machines that allowed for more intense visualization of deep-seated anatomy and tumors.
  • The Coolidge tube, which also utilized a tungsten filament, was a major development in the then-nascent medical specialty of radiology, and its basic design is still in use.
  • He invented the first rotating anode X-ray tube.
  • The Coolidge tube, also called the hot cathode tube, is the most widely used.
  • It works with a very good quality vacuum (about 10-4pa, or 10-6 Torr).
  • In the Coolidge tube, the electrons are produced by the thermionic effect from a tungsten filament heated by an electric current.
  • The filament is the cathode of the tube.
  • The high voltage potential is between the cathode and the anode, the electrons are thus accelerated and then hit the anode.

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