Diseases Of The Arteries Veins And Lymphatic System Short Answers

Diseases Of The Arteries Veins And Lymphatic System Short Answers

Question 1. Aneurysm of aorta.


Aneurysm of aorta

It is an abnormal enlargement of the wall of the aorta.

Aneurysm of aorta Types:

  1. Abdominal aortic eneurysm.
    • Aneurysm occurring in the section of the aorta that runs through abdomen.
  2. Thoracic aorta aneurysm.
    • It is aneurysm occurring in the chest area.
  3. Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm.
    • Involves aorta as it flows through both the abdomen and chest.

Aneurysm of aorta Features:

  • Pain in the jaw, neck, upper back, or chest
  • Coughing.
  • Hoarseness of voice.
  • Difficulty breathing.
  • Pulsating enlargement.

Question 2. Mycotic aneurysm.


Mycotic aneurysm

  • Mycotic aneurysm is an aneurysm arising from bacterial infection of the arterial wall.
  • It is caused by streptococcus pneumonia.

Mycotic aneurysm Symptoms:

  • Fever
  • Leucocytosis
  • Palpable mass.

Question 3. Cricoid aneurysm/Aneurysmal bone cyst.


Cricoid aneurysm

Circoid aneurysm involves the bone anywhere in the body including the jaws.

Cricoid aneurysm Clinical Features:

  • Age – 10 – 19 years of age.
  • Sex – occurs commonly in females.
  • Rapid, enlarging, diffuse, firm swelling occurs.
  • Swelling is painful.
  • Perforation of cysts causes profuse bleeding.
  • Paraesthesia.

Question 4. Signs of Aneurysm.


Signs of Aneurysm

  • Expansile pulsation in the course of artery.
  • Pulsation diminishes when pressure is applied
  • Compressible swelling.
  • Thrill is palpable over swelling
  • Bruit is heard.

Read And Learn More: General Surgery Question and Answers

Question 5. Arteriography.



  • It is most reliable method of determining the state of main arterial tree.
  • It gives information about.
    • Size of lumen of artery.
    • Course of artery.
    • Constriction and dilatation of arteries.
    • Condition of collateral circulation.

Arteriography Methods:

  1. Retrograde percutaneous catheterization.
  2. Direct arterial puncture.

Diseases Of The Arteries Veins And Lymphatic Lymphatic System

Question 6. Embolism.


Embolism Definition: Embolism is the partial/complete obstruction of some part of the cardiovascular system by any mass carried in the circulation.

Embolism Types:

  1. Depending upon the matter in the emboli.
    • Solid emboli.
    • Liquid emboli.
    • Gaseous emboli.
  2. Depending upon whether infected or not
    • Sterile
    • Septic.
  3. Depending upon the source of emboli.
    • Cardiac
    • Arterial
    • Venous
    • Lymphatic
  4. Depending upon the flow of blood.
    • Paradoxical embolus.
    • Retrograde embolus.

Question 7. Pulmonary embolism.


Pulmonary embolism Definition: Pulmonary embolism is the most common and fatal form of venous thromboembolism in which there is occlusion of the pulmonary arterial tree by thrombotic emboli.


  • Varicosities in superifical veins of legs.

Pulmonary embolism Complication:

  • Acute corpulmonale
  • Chronic corpulmonale
  • Pulmonary hypertension
  • Pulmonary infarction.
  • Pulmonary haemorrhage.
  • Sudden death.

Question 8. Raynaud’s disease.


Raynaud’s disease Definition: It is a condition characterized by episodic attacks of vasospasm in response to cold exposure or emotional stimuli.

Raynaud’s disease Phases:

  1. Intense pallor
  2. Cyanosis
  3. Rubor.


  • Unknown etiology.
  • Secondary to systemic diseases like
  • Buerger’s disease.

Question 9. Subclavin steal syndrome.


Subclavin steal syndrome

  • It is a condition in which there is atherosclerotic stenosis of the subclavian artery proximal to the site of origin of the vertebral artery.

Subclavin steal syndrome Clinical features:

  • Reduction in pressure in subclavian beyond the stenosis.
  • Retrograde blood flow
  • Syncopal attack.
  • Visual disturbances.
  • Decreased pulse and blood pressure
  • Localised bruit inthe supraclavicular space.

Question 10. Trendelenburg’s test.


Trendelenburg’s test

  • Trendelenburg’s test is used to determine the incompetency of the saphenofemoral valve.
  • It can be performed in two ways.
  1. Patient is placed in a recumbent position.
    • Legs are raised
    • Sapheno-femoral junction is compressed with thumb of the clinician and the patient is asked to stand up quickly.
    • Pressure is released.
    • If the varies fill very quickly, it indicates a positive Trendelenburg’s test.
  2. Patient is placed in recumbent position.
    • Legs are raised
    • Sapheno-femoral junction is compressed and patient is asked to stand up quickly.
    • Pressure is maintained for 1 minute.
    • Gradual filling of varices indicated positive Trendelenburg’s test.

Question 11. Commando’s operation.


Commando’s operation Indication: When carcinoma of tongue is fixed to the mandible

Commando’s operation Steps:

  • Hemiglossectomy.
  • Hemimandibulectomy.
  • Removal of floor of the mouth.
  • Radical neck dissection.

Commando’s operation Structure removed:

  • Fat, fascia, lymphatics.
  • Lymph nodes – submental, submandibular deep cervical nodes, posterior group of nodes.
  • Submandibular salivary gland.
  • Sternomastoid.
  • Internal jugular vein.
  • Spinal accessory nerve.

Question 12. Clinical staging of Hodgkin’s lymphoma.


Clinical staging of Hodgkin’s lymphoma

Stage 1: Involvement of single lymph node.

Stage 2: Involvement of 2/ more lymph node on same side of diaphragm.

Stage 3: Involvement of 2/more lymph nodes on both sides of the diaphragm.

Stage 4: Diffuse involvement of extra-lymphoid organs with or without lymph node involvement.

Question 13. Histological classification of Hodgkin’s lymphoma.


Histological classification of Hodgkin’s lymphoma

  1. Type 1 – Lymphocyte predominant type.
    • Reed Sternberg (RS) cells are scanty; scattered among large number of matured lymphocytes.
  2. Type 2 – mixed cellularity.
    • There is significant number of eosinophils, neutrophils, plasma cells, and atypical histio- cytesalongwith. RS cells and lymphocytes.
  3. Type 3 – Nodular sclerosis.
    • Presence of broad collagen bands separating the lymphoid tissue.
  4. Type 4 – lymphocyte depletion.
    • Lymphocytes are few
    • Presence of malignant appearing histiocytes.

Question 14. Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma.


Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma

It is a group of primary malignancy of lymph-reticular tissue.

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma Classification:

  1. Histological.
    • Lymphocyte predominant
    • Mixed cellularity
    • Nodular sclerosis.
    • Lymphocyte depletion.
  2. Based on the prognosis.
    • Nodular – favorable prognosis.
    • Diffuse-unfavorable prognosis.

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma Clinical features:

  • Extranodal involvement.
  • Fever with night sweats
  • Weight loss
  • Local invasion of adjacent structures
  • Regional lymphadenopathy.

Non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma Management:

  • Staging laparotomy is required
  • Splenectomy.

Question 14. Lymphadenitis.



Lymphadenitis is the inflammation of lymph nodes.

Lymphadenitis Clinical features:

  • Site involved – lymph nodes under neck, in the axilla, or in the groin.
  • Lymph nodes are enlarged.
  • Firm, painful enlargement occurs
  • Hyperaemic overlying skin.
  • Fever

Lymphadenitis Treatment:

  • Analgesic
  • Antibiotic
  • Abscess drainage.

Question 15. Lymphosarcoma.


Lymphosarcoma Definition: It is defined as a malignant neoplastic disorder of the lymphoid tissue characterized by proliferation of atypical lymphocytes and their localization. In various parts of the body.

Lymphosarcoma Clinical Features:

  • Age – common in children.
  • Lymph nodes involved – in neck, mediastinum, and abdomen.
  • Extra-nodal involvement – spleen, tonsil, pharynx, bowel.
  • Enlargement of lymph nodes.
  • Constitutional symptoms – fever, loss of weight, anemia, anorexia, weakness.
  • The overlying skin is shiny and tense
  • Surface is irregular.

Lymphosarcoma Treatment:

  • Radiotherapy.
  • Chemotherapy – in case of diffuse involvement.

Question 16. Microscopic appearance of tuberculous lymphadenitis.


Microscopic appearance of tuberculous lymphadenitis

  • Tubercles are seen consisting of epithelial cells and gaint cells with peripherally arranged nuclei.
  • Next lymphocytes with darkly stained nuclei and scanty cytoplasm appears.
  • As the disease progresses caseation necorsis occurs.
  • Thus, in the center of follicle caseation occurs
  • This is surrounded by gaint cells, epitheloid cells, zone of chronic inflammatory cells, and fibroblasts.

Diseases Of The Arteries Veins And Lymphatic System Microscopic Appearance Of Tuberculuous Lymphadentitis

Question 17. Malignant secondary lymph node.


Malignant secondary lymph node

Can occur commonly from malignant melanoma.

Malignant secondary lymph node Clinical Features:

  • Site
  • Painless swelling
  • Constitutional symptoms – anorexia, weight loss, weakness.
  • Lymph nodes are irregular, and discrete.
  • They fuse to form a large mass.
  • Nodes are usually hard.
  • Gradually they gets fixed to the surrounding structures.

Diseases Of The Arteries Veins And Lymphatic System Malignant Secondary Lymph Node Clinical Features

Question 18. Use of MRI ion head and neck.


Use of MRI ion head and neck

  • For study of TMJ deformities in the sagittal plane.
  • To evaluate various spaces in head and neck region.
  • For nasopharynx, skull base, tongue pathology.
  • Posturgical evaluation of TMJ.
  • To identify and localize orofacial soft tissue lesions.
  • Provides image of salivary gland parenchyma.

Question 19. Lymphatic drainage of tongue.


Lymphatic drainage of tongue

Diseases Of The Arteries Veins And Lymphatic System Lymphatic Drainage Of Tongue

Question 20. Waldeye’s ring.


Waldeyer’s ring consists of

  • Pharyngeal tonsil-posteriorly and above
  • Tubal tonsil – laterally and above
  • Lingual tonsil – Inferiorly.
  • Submandibular nodes
  • Retropharyngeal nodes
  • Submental nodes
  • Jugulodigastric nodes
  • Jugular chains of nodes.
  • Retropharyngeal node
  • Tubal tonsil Palatine tonsil Lingual tonsil
  • Jugular chain of nodes

Diseases Of The Arteries Veins And Lymphatic System Waldeyer's Lymphatic Ring

Question 21. Causes of wet gangrene


Causes of wet gangrene

  • Gangrene from acute inflammation
  • Long-standing venous thrombosis
  • Bed sores
  • Gas gangrene

Question 22. Stages of tubercular lymphadenitis


Stages of tubercular lymphadenitis

Diseases Of The Arteries Veins And Lymphatic System Stages Of Tubercular Lymphadenitis

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