Lower Limb Sole Of Foot Question And Answers

Sole Of Foot Question And Answers

Question 1. Give a description of the sole of foot with the peculiarities of skin, superficial fascia, and deep fascia.

The sole of foot

The region in the upper limb corresponding to the sole of the foot is hand. However, due to functional difference, sole and hand differ in their anatomical arrangements.

Sole Of Foot Skin of Sole

  • It is specialized because:
    • It is thick and hairless
    • It is creased for grip
    • Firmly adherent to the underlying deep fascia
    • It has numerous sweat glands.

Sole Of Foot Superficial Fascia

  • It is thick and dense over weight-bearing points. It contains:
    • Subcutaneous fat
    • Cutaneous nerves.

Sole Of Foot Deep Fascia

  • It is modifid to form:
    • Plantar Aponeurosis
      • It is the thickened part of the fascia covering the sole
      • It represents the distal part of plantaris muscle
      • It is triangular in shape
      • The apex is proximal and base is distal
      • At the base it divides into 5 processes
      • Each process splits into superfiial and deep slip
      • Superficial slip is attached to the skin
      • Deep slip again splits and embraces the flexor retinaculum.
      • Functions:
        • It fies the skin to sole
        • It protects deeper structure in the sole
        • Helps to maintain the longitudinal arch of foot
        • It gives origin to the first layer of sole.
    • Deep transverse metatarsal ligaments.
    • Fibrous flexor sheaths.

Sole Of Foot Plantar Aponeurosis

Read And Learn More: Anatomy Question And Answers 

Sole Of Foot Clinical Anatomy

Plantar fasciitis can occur due to stretching of palmar aponeurosis in policemen.

Question 2. List the muscles of sole of foot. Give their nerve supply and actions.

The muscles of sole of foot

  • There are 18 intrinsic muscles and 4 extrinsic tendons in the sole.
  • Intrinsic muscles are arranged in 4 layers.
  • They are chiefly concerned about maintaining the arches of the foot.

Muscles of First Layer of Sole of Foot

Sole Of Foot Muscles Of First Layer Of Sole Of Foot

Muscles of Second Layer of Sole of Foot

Sole Of Foot Muscles Of Second Layer Of Sole Of Foot

Muscles of Third Layer of Sole of Foot

Sole Of Foot Muscles Of Third Layer Of Sole Of Foot

Muscles of Fourth Layer of Sole of Foot

Sole Of Foot Muscles Of Fourth Layer Of Sole Of Foot

Question 3. Explain in detail about arches of foot by classifying and comparing them.

Arches Of Foot

  • Human foot is uniquely architectured to perform complex functions.
  • Arches of foot helps in weight bearing, fast walking, running and jumping.
  • These arches are maintained by intrinsic and extrinsic muscles of the sole in addition to ligaments, aponeurosis, and shape of bones.
  • Arches of foot are classified into:
    • Longitudinal:
      • Medial
      • Lateral
    • Transverse:
      • Anterior
      • Posterior

Sole Of Foot Height Of Arches Of Foot From The Ground (1)Medial View Of Medial Longitudinal Arch (2)Lateral View Of Lateral Longitudinal Arch

Sole Of Foot Medial Longitudinal Arch And Lateral Longitudinal Arch

Sole Of Foot Anterior Transverse Arch And Posterior Transverse Arch

Arches Of Foot Functions

  • It distributes body weight to the weight-bearing parts of the sole.
  • They act as springs and help in walking and running.
  • They also act as shock absorbers while stepping and jumping.
  • The soft tissue of the sole are protected due to the concavity created by the arches.

Arches Of Foot Clinical Anatomy

  • Flat foot (pes planus): Occurs due to medial longitudinal arch deformity.
  • High-arched foot (pes cavus): Occurs due to exaggeration of the longitudinal arch of foot.
  • Club foot/talipes: Combined defect of ankle and foot resulting in an inability to walk normally. For example, talipes equinus, talipes varus, talipes valgus, etc.


  • Tarsal bones of ankle ‘Tiger Cubs Need MILC’:
    • Superior, then clockwise on right foot:
    • Talus
    • Calcaneus
    • Navicular
    • Medial cuneiform
    • Intermediate cuneiform
    • Lateral cuneiform
    • Cuboid

Sole Of Foot Multiple Choice Question

Question 1. Which is the main joint of the medial longitudinal arch?

  1. Calcaneocuboid
  2. Subtalar
  3. Talocalcaneonavicular
  4. Ankle

Answer: 3. Talocalcaneonavicular

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