Infection Control And Sterilization Question And Answers

Infection Control & Sterilization Important Notes

For disinfecting large bodies of water, chlorine is applied as

  • Chlorine gas
  • Chloramine
  • Perchloron

DPT vaccine

  • By it, immunization against 3 diseases can be done
  • They are: Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus
  • Types: plain and adsorbed
  • Adsorption is usually carried out by the addition of aluminum phosphate or aluminum hydroxide
  • The adsorption process increases the immunological effectiveness of the vaccine
  • It should not be repeated if a severe reaction occurred after a previous dose

Meningococcal vaccine

  • It is offered only to travelers at significant risk of infection
  • The vaccines are purified, heat-stable, lyophilized capsular polysaccharides from meningococci

Types of polio vaccine

  • Inactivated Salk polio vaccine
  • Oral Sabin polio vaccine containing live attenuated virus

Herpetic whitlow

  • It is a painful infection of herpes simplex and typically affects the fingers and thumb
  • It can be caused by HSV-1 or HSV-2
  • Herpetic whitlow lesions are commonly seen in dental workers and medical workers exposed to oral secretion
  • Also observed in children with thumb-sucking habits and with primary HSV-1 oral infection.

Infection Control & Sterilization Short Essays

Question 1. Infection control in the dental office.

Personal Barriers:

  • Washing & care of the hands
    • Dentist should wash their hands before & after treating each patient & after barehanded touching inanimate objects
    • For surgical procedures, an antimicrobial surgical hand scrub should be used
    • When gloves are torn, cut, or punctured they should be removed
  • Gloves
    • Nonsterile- used for examination & other non-surgical procedures
    • Sterile- used for surgical procedures
    • Gloves should not be washed before use & should not be reused
  • Gowns
    • Protective clothing such as reusable/disposable gowns, laboratory coats, or uniforms should be worn when clothing is likely to be soiled with blood or other body fluids
    • Reusable protective clothing should be used
  • Masks/ protective eyewear
    • Chin-length plastic face shields or surgical masks & protect
      tive eyewear should be worn when splashing or spattering of blood or other body fluids is likely to occur
  • Rubber dam
    • It minimizes the formation of droplets, spatter & aerosols during patient treatment

Use & Care Of Sharp Instruments:

  • Used needles should never be recapped
  • Sharp items should be placed in appropriate puncture-resistant containers
  • Bending or breaking of needles is not recommended

Sterilization Or Disinfection Of Instruments


  • Physical
  • Steam under pressure
  • Diyheat
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Gas plasma
  • Boiling water
  • Ionizing radiation
  • Chemical methods
  • Acids
  • Alkalis
  • Aldehyde
  • Chlorine


  • It is the removal of visible soil from objects
  • Accomplished manually or mechanically using water with detergents or enzymatic products

Cleaning & Disinfection Of Dental Unit & Environmental Surfaces:

  • Aluminum foil or plastic cover should be used to protect items & surfaces that may become contaminated
  • After treatment of each patient & after completion of daily work countertops & dental unit surfaces should be cleaned with disposable toweling, using appropriate cleaning agent & water

Question 2. Hepatitis B.

Hepatitis B

  • Described in 1965

Signs & Symptoms:

  • Mild flu with illness to fulminant
  • Fatal liver failure
  • Prodromal phase involve
    • Anorexia
    • Malaise
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
    • Fever
    • Urticaria
    • Arthralgia
  • After 3-10 days
    • Dark urine
    • Jaundice
  • After 1-2 weeks
    • Jaundice fades & recovery begins in 2-4 weeks
  • Incubation period- 45-160 days
  • Sequel
    • Cirrhosis
    • Acute hepatitis
    • Primary liver cancer
    • Death

Mode Of Transmission:

  • Major is a blood-borne infection
  • Other involves saliva & crevicular fluid


  • Effective treatment not available
  • Subcutaneous administration of interferon alfa 2b was effective in inducing loss of replication of virus

Infection Control And Sterilization

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Question 3. Transmissible infection in dentistry.

Herpes Virus Infections:

Infection Control and Sterilization Herpes virus infections

Acute Viral Hepatitis:

Infection Control and Sterilization Acute viral hepatitis

Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome:

  • Human immunodeficiency virus leads to it
  • Route of transmission
  • Blood & other body fluids
  • Signs & symptoms
    • Unexplained diarrhea
    • Fatigue
    • Malaise
    • Loss of body weight
    • Fever
    • Night sweat
    • Oral thrush
    • Generalized lymphadenopathy
    • Enlarged spleen
    • Opportunistic infections


  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis organism causes it
  • Symptoms
    • Cough of more than 3 weeks
    • Sputum possibly tinged with blood
    • Unexplained weight loss
    • Night sweats

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