Immunity Short And Long Essays Question And Answers

Immunity Important Notes

1. Types of immunity

  • Innate immunity
  • Acquired immunity
    • Types
      • Active immunity
        • Natural active
        • Artificial active
      • Passive immunity
        • Natural passive
        • Artificial passive

2. Antigens

  • Heterophile antigen
    • These are the same or closely related antigens present in different tissues of more than one species
  • Haptens
    • These are substances unable to induce antibody formation on its own but can be immunogenic when linked to carrier proteins
    • It is a partial/incomplete antigen

3. Immunoglobulin

  • These are substances which are formed in serum in response to an antigen
  • It consists of two heavy chains and two light chains held together by disulphide bonds

Immunoglobulin Classes

Immunity Immunoglobulin classes

Read And Learn More: Microbiology Question and Answers

4. Types of antigen-antibody reactions

Immunity Types of antigen-antibody reactions

5. Complement

  • It refers to a system of factors which occurs in normal serum and are activated by antigen-antibody reaction
  • It is triggered by two parallel pathway
  • Classical pathway
  • Alternate pathway

6. Interleukins (IL)

Immunity Interleukins

7. Hypersensitivity reactions

Immunity Hypetsensitivity reactions

8. Vaccines

Immunity Vaccines

Immunity Long Essays

Question 1. Define and classify immunity. Discuss acquired immunity.
Answer:

Definition:

1. Immunity:

  • It is defined as resistance exhibited by the host against any foreign antigen including micro-organisms.

Immunity Classification:

  • Immunity may be classified into different types as follows.

Immunity - Classify Immunity

2. Acquired immunity:

Definition:

  • It is the resistance acquired by an individual during life.

Acquired immunity Types:

1. Active Immunity:

  • It is subdivided into two types.
    • Natural active immunity.
      • Acquired by natural subclinical or clinical infections.
      • It is long-lasting.
      • Example: A person recovering from smallpox develop natural active immunity.
    • Artificial active immunity.
      • Induced by vaccination.

Mechanism:

  • Active immunity stimulates both humoral and cell-mediated immunity.

Immunity Stimulates between Humoral and Cell Mediated Immunity

2. Passive Immunity:

  • It is subdivided into two types:
    • Natural
      • Immunity is transferred from mother to fetus transplacentally.
    • Artificial
      • Occurs through the parenteral administration of antibodies.

Mechanism:

  • It is induced in an individual by preformed vaccines against infective agents.
  • It is short lasting.
  • It is used when immunity is required immediately.

Uses:

  • To provide immediate short-term protection
  • For suppression of active immunity.
  • For treatment of serious infection

Immunity Short Essays

Question 1. Innate immunity.
Answer:

Innate immunity Definition:

  • It is the resistance which individual possesses by birth.

Innate Immunity Types:

  • Factors influencing it:

1. Age:

  • Infants have immature immunity, while during old age there is gradual decreases in immunity.
  • This increases susceptibility to infections.

2. Hormones:

  • Hormonal disorders may lead to increased susceptibility to infections.

3. Nutrition:

  • Malnutrition predisposes to infections.

Innate immunity Mechanism:

1. Epithelial surfaces:

  • Skin.
    • Act as a mechanical barrier to micro-organisms
    • Provides bacteriocidal secretions.
    • The resident bacterial flora prevents colonization by pathogens.
  • Respiratory tract.
    • Nasal passages arrest the inhaled particles.
    • The mucous secretions of the respiratory tract act as a trapping mechanism.
    • Cilia help to propel the particles toward the pharynx.
  • Intestinal tract.
    • Mouth – inhibits micro-organisms.
    • Acidic gastric pH – destroys bacteria.
    • Intestine – prevents colonization of bacteria,
  • Conjunctiva.
    • Tears flushes away bacteria and dust particles.
    • Lysozyme present in tears has bacteriocidal actions.
  • Genitourinary tract.
    • Urine eliminates bacteria.
    • Vaginal secretions destroy pathogens.
    • Semen contains antibacterial substances.

2. Antibacterial substances:

  • It includes properdin, complement, lysozyme, beta-lysin, basic polypeptides, and interferons.

3. Cellular factors:

  • Phagocytic cells ingest pathogenic organisms and de¬¨stroy them.

4. Inflammation:

  • It is a non-specific defense mechanism.
  • It phagocytoses and destroys micro-organism.

5. Fever:

  • Stimulates production of interferon

6. Acute phase proteins:

  • Activate alternate pathways of complement.

Immunity How To Opitimize Your immune System

Immunity Short Question And Answers

Question 1. Types of active immunity with examples.
Answer:

Types of active immunity with examples

Immunity Active Immunity Types

Question 2. Difference between active and passive immunity
Answer:

Difference between active and passive immunity

Immunity Differences between Active and passive immunity

Question 3. List two examples of Passive immunity.
Answer:

Two examples of Passive immunity

Immunity Passive Immunity

Question 4. Define and classify antigens.
Answer:

Antigen Definition:

  • The antigen is a substance which, when introduced into a body evokes an immune response to produce a specific antibody with which it reacts in an observable manner.

Antigen Types:

1. Complete antigen.

  • These can induced antibody formation by themselves.

2. Complete antigen.

  • These can induced antibody formation by themselves.

3. Incomplete antigen/haptens.

  • These are unable to induce antibody formation on their own.
  • But can become immunogenic when they are covalently linked to carrier proteins.

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