Haemorrhage Shock And Blood Transfusion Notes

Haemorrhage Shock And Blood Transfusion Important Notes

  1. Classification of haemorrhage
    • Based on the nature of the vessel involved
      • Arterial
      • Venous
      • Capillary
    • Based on the timing of the haemorrhage
      • Primary
      • Reactionary
      • Secondary
    • Based on the duration of the haemorrhage
      • Acute
      • Chronic
    • Based on the source of the haemorrhage
      • External
      • Internal
  2. Methods of measuring blood loss
    • Weighing swab
    • Measurement of swelling in a closed fracture
    • Measuring a blood clot
  3. Methods to stop bleeding
    • Rest
    • Pressure and packing
    • Ligation of vessels
  4. HemophiliaHaemorrhage Shock And Blood Transfusion Hemophilia
  5. Shock
    • Definition
      • Shock is a condition in which circulation fails to meet the nutritional needs of the cells and fails to remove the metabolic waste products
    • Classification
      • Haematogenic or hypovoJaernic shock
      • Traumatic shock
      • Neurogenic shock
      • Cardiogenic shock
      • Septic shock
      • Miscellaneous
        • Anaphylactic shock
  6. Blood transfusion
    • Indications
      • Acute haemorrhage
      • Major surgery
      • Deep burns
      • Pre-operative and post-operative in anaemia
      • In malnutrition
      • In coagulation disorders
      • In erythroblastosis details
      • During chemotherapy in malignant diseases
    • Complications
      • Transfusion reactions
        • Incompatibility
        • Pyrexia reactions
        • Allergic reactions
      • Transmission of diseases
      • Reactions caused by massive transfusion
        • Acid-base imbalance
        • Hyperkalaemia
        • Citrate toxicity
        • Hypothermia
        • Failure of coagulation
      • Complications of over-transfusion
        • Congestive cardiac failure
      • Other complications
        • Thrombophlebitis
        • Air embolism
  7. Blood products
    • Plasma and its derivatives
      • Fresh frozen plasma
      • Platelet-rich plasma
      • Fibrinogen
      • Albumin
      • Cryoprecipitate
    • Synthetic solution
      • Dextran
      • Gelatin
      • Hydroxyethyl starch
      • Fluorocarbons

Haemorrhage Shock And Blood Transfusion Short Essays

Question 1. Vasovagal shock.


Vasovagal shock

  • Vasovagal shock is a type of neurogenic shock.


Haemorrhage Shock And Blood Transfusion Haemorrhage shock And Blood Transfusion

Vasovagal Shock Clinical features:

  • Reduced blood flow to the brain.
  • Cerebral hypoxia.
  • Bradycardia.
  • Hypotension
  • Unconsciousness
  • Pallor

Vasovagal Shock  Treatment:

  • Place the patient flat or in head low position.
  • Maintain airway
  • Use of 4 atropine.

Question 2. Reactionary bleeding.


Reactionary bleeding

Reactionary bleeding is defined as bleeding that occurs within 24 hours of injury or operation.

Reactionary Bleeding Causes:

  • Dislodgement of a blood clot.
  • Slipping of ligatures.

Reactionary Bleeding  Precipitating Factors:

  • Rise in blood pressure
  • Restlessness.
  • Coughing
  • Vomiting
  • Raise in venous pressure.

Read And Learn More: General Surgery Question and Answers

Question 3. Haemophilia.



  • Hemophilia is a sex-linked inherited disorder.
  • It is carried by a recessive gene.
  • Transmitted through female carriers.

Haemophilia Cause:

  • Lack of factor 8, coagulation factor.

Haemophilia Clinical features:

  • Bleeding after mild trauma.
  • Repeated haemorrhages into joints.
  • Spontaneous retroperitoneal bleeding.
  • Severe abdominal pain, and tenderness.
  • Haematuria.
  • Permanent damages to the articular cartilages and articular surfaces.
  • Disorganization of the joints.

Haemophilia Treatment:

  • Periodic infusion of cryoprecipitate.
  • Transfusion of fresh blood or fresh frozen plasma.

Haemorrhage Shock And Blood Transfusion Viva Voce

  1. Albumin is not used in chronic renal disease, chronic liver disease and to treat malnutrition
  2. Cryoprecipitate is a rich source of factor 8
  3. Fluorocarbon is considered to be a red cell substitute
  4. Blood is stored in blood banks at 4°C
  5. Cold citrate-containing blood changes storage
  6. Blood is separated into individual components to optimize therapeutic potency
  7. Styptics are local hemostatic agents used to stop bleeding from the local approaching site
  8. Hypotension manifests when blood loss exceeds 30%

Leave a Comment