Developmental Disturbances Of Oral And Paraoral Structures Short Question And Answers

Developmental Disturbances Of Oral And Paraoral Structures Short Question And Answers

Question 1. Gardener’s syndrome

Gardener’s syndrome

It is a hereditary disorder characterized by colorectal polyps in association with various other lesions involving skin, eyes, teeth, and skeletal system

Gardener’s Syndrome Clinical Features:

  • Multiple intestinal polyps
  • Multiple osteomas of the skin, paranasal sinuses, and jaw
  • Facial deformity
  • Difficulty in mouth opening
  • Multiple supernumerary teeth, impacted teeth, and odontomas
  • Desmoid tumors of soft tissue and dermoid cysts of skin are present
  • Pigmented lesion in ocular fundus

Gardener’s Syndrome Treatment:

  • Prophylactic colectomy
  • Surgical removal of osteomas and dermoid cyst

Question 2. Ramsay Hunt syndrome

Ramsay Hunt syndrome

It is a zoster infection of geniculate ganglion with involvement of external ear and oral mucosa

Read And Learn More: Oral Pathology Questions and Answers

Ramsay Hunt syndrome Clinical Features:

  • Facial paralysis
  • The pain of external auditory meatus
  • Pinna of the ear
  • Vesicular eruption in the oral cavity and oropharynx
  • Hoarseness of voice
  • Tinnitus
  • vertigo

Question 3. Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome

Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome

  • The melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome consists of
    • Recurrent attacks of facial paralysis identical to Bell’s palsy
    • Nonpitting, non-inflammatory painless edema of the face
    • Chelitis granulomatosa
    • Scrotal tongue
    • Persistent unilateral edema of orbit and eyelid

Developmental Disturbances Of Oral And Paraoral Structures.

Question 4. Hairy tongue
Black hairy tongue

Black hairy tongue Etiology:

  • Formation of excess keratin
  • Infections- like candidiasis

Black hairy tongue Clinical Features:

  • Elongation of filiform papillae
  • Color- white to yellow
  • Located on the posterior dorsal surface of the tongue
  • Poor oral hygiene
  • Bad taste in the mouth

Black hairy tongue Treatment:

  • Elimination of predisposing factors
  • Cleaning of the dorsal surface of the tongue with a soft toothbrush
  • Treat candidiasis

Question 5. PeutJeghers syndrome

PeutzJeghers syndrome Features:

  • Recurrent abdominal pain due to familial intestinal polyps
  • Cutaneous pigmentation in the perioral region
  • Precocious puberty
  • Gastrointestinal bleeding
  • Pigmentation of buccal mucosa

Question 6. Xerostomia


It refers to the subjective sensation of dry mouth associated with salivary hypofunction

Xerostomia Etiology:

  • Developmental- salivary aplasia
  • Water or metabolic imbalance
  • Iatrogenic causes
  • Medications- antihistamines, decongestants, antidepressants, antihypertensives
  • Radiation

Xerostomia Clinical Features:

  • Reduction in salivary secretion
  • Residual saliva is foamy or thick
  • Fissured dorsum of the tongue
  • Atrophy of filiform papilla
  • Difficulty in mastication and swallowing
  • Susceptibility to infection
  • Dry mouth
  • More prone to dental caries

Question 7. Turner’s hypoplasia

Turner’s hypoplasia

  • Turner’s hypoplasia is enamel hypoplasia occurring due to trauma or infection to the deciduous dentition
  • Commonly affects incisors or premolars
  • Periapical infection of deciduous teeth affects the ameloblastic layer of underlying permanent teeth
  • As a result, permanent teeth get discolored or pitted

Question 8. Dilaceration


It refers to an angulation or sharp bend or curve anywhere along the root portion of the tooth

Dilaceration Clinical Features:

  • Involves both dentition
  • Seen at the coronal portion of the teeth
  • The tooth looks like hook-shaped due to bending in the root
  • Extraction of involved teeth

Question 9. Talons cusp

Talons cusp

It is an anomalous projection from the lingual aspect of the maxillary and mandibular permanent incisors

Talons cusp Clinical Features:

  • It arises from the cingulum area of the tooth which extends to the incisal edge as a prominent T-shaped projection
    • Asymptomatic
    • Cosmetic problems
    • Susceptible to caries
    • Consist of normal-appearing enamel, dentin, and vital pulp tissue

Associated Syndrome:

Rubinstein Taybi syndrome

Talons cusp Treatment:

Restorative measures- to prevent caries

Question 10. Taurodontism


Taurodontism is a peculiar developmental condition in which the crown of the tooth is enlarged at the expense of its roots

Taurodontism Pathgenesis:

  • It occurs due to failure of the Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath to invaginate at the proper horizontal level

Taurodontism Clinical Features:

  • It involves both the sex
  • It commonly affects multi-rooted permanent molar teeth and sometimes premolar
  • It rarely occurs in primary dentition
  • Common in Neanderthal men
  • The affected tooth exhibits an elongated pulp chamber with rudimentary roots
  • Teeth are usually rectangular with minimum constriction at the cervical area
  • The furcation area of the teeth is more apically placed
  • Teeth often have a greater apical-occlusal height

Question 11. Unerupted teeth

Unerupted teeth

  • It is an uncommon condition
  • Causes delayed eruption of permanent teeth

Unerupted teeth Causes:

  • Retained deciduous teeth
  • Failure of eruption of permanent teeth
  • Lack of eruptive force
  • Cleidocranial dysplasia

Question 12. Amelogenesis imperfecta

Amelogenesis imperfecta

It is a developmental anomaly characterized by defective enamel formation

Amelogenesis imperfecta Clinical Features:

  • Affects both dentition
  • Color- chalky white to yellow
  • Prone to disintegration
  • Open contact points due to loss of enamel
  • Abraded occlusal surfaces and incisal edges
  • Abrasion of dentin
  • Cheesy consistency of enamel
  • Alteration in the eruption process
  • Anterior open bite
  • Presence of grooves and wrinkles on enamel surfaces
  • The presence of some white opaque flecks at incisal margins gives Snow-capped teeth appearance

Question 13. Shell teeth

Shell teeth

  • In type 3 dentinogenesis imperfect the dentin appears very thin and pulp chambers and root canals are extremely large
  • Because of this, the teeth appear thin shells of enamel and dentin
  • Thus it is described as shell teeth
  • Seen in association with enamel aplasia

Question 14. Ghost Teeth

Ghost Teeth

  • It is a radiographic feature of regional odontodysplasia
  • It involves both dentition
  • Permanent teeth show delayed eruption and defective mineralization
  • There is a marked decreased radiodensity
  • Enamel and dentin are very thin
  • Pulp chambers are extremely large and open
  • This results in the ghostly appearance of the involved teeth

Question 15. Tooth ankylosis

Tooth ankylosis

Fusion between the tooth and bone is called ankylosis

Tooth ankylosis Clinical Features:

  • Asymptomatic
  • Produces dull, muffled sound on percussion
  • Loss of periodontal ligament
  • Mild sclerosis of the bone
  • Blending of bone with tooth root
  • This leads to difficulty in the extraction

Question 16. Submerged teeth

Submerged teeth

Submerged teeth are ankylosed deciduous teeth

Submerged teeth Causes:

  • Trauma
  • Infection
  • Disturbed local metabolism
  • Genetic factor

Submerged teeth Clinical Features:

  • Commonly affects mandibular second molars
  • It prevents the exfoliation of deciduous teeth and the eruption of their successor
  • It is located below the occlusal level of other teeth
  • There is a lack of physiological mobility in the teeth
  • It imparts solid sound on percussion

Radiographic Features:

  • Absence of periodontal ligament
  • Blending of tooth root and bone

Question 17. Enameloma



  • The ectopic formation of enamel in the form of globule on the root surface is referred to as Enameloma
  • It is usually located in the cementoenamel junction or the cervical third of the root surface

Enameloma Clinical features

  • It appears as yellowish white, spherical, or globular structure adherent to the furcation areas of the root surface
  • Diameter ranges from 1-3 mm
  • More common in the roots of maxillary molars
  • May produce localized periodontal destruction in molars
  • Radiological features
  • Appears as hemispherical dense radio parities projecting from the root surface.

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