Community Dentistry Miscellaneous Short And Long Essay Question And Answers

Miscellaneous Short Essays

Question 1. Odds ratio.

Odds Ratio Definition:

It is a measure of the strength of the association between risk factors & outcome

Odds Ratio It Is Based On:

  • The disease being investigated must be relatively rare. Example: Chronic disease
  • The cases must be representative of those with the disease
  • The controls must be representative of those without the disease

Miscellaneous Odds ratio

Odds Ratio Example:

If the odd’s ratio is 6.2- means the risk of oral cancer was 6.2 times greater in individuals in tobacco chewers than in non-chewers

Question 2. Tristan de Cunhan study.

Tristan de Cunhan study

  • It is a small remote island in the South Atlantic inhabited by people of European descent
  • In the early 1960s volcanic eruption led to the evacuation of the entire community to England
  • After a few years, an improvement occurred & the region become habitable
  • Thus the people returned
  • Modern industries developed & processed food became easily available
  • Dental examination was carried out on an island in 1932, 1937 & 1953
  • In England in 1962
  • On an island in 1966
  • Results obtained are

Miscellaneous Tristan de cunhan study

Question 3. Functional appliances.

Functional Appliances Definition:

It is defined as loose fitting/ passive appliances which harness natural forces of oro-facial musculature that are transmitted to teeth & alveolar bone

Classification Of Functional Appliances:

  • According to Tom Graber
  • Group A: teeth supported
  • Group B: teeth/ tissue supported
  • Group C: vestibular positioned
  • Based on use
  • Removable
  • Semi fixed
  • Fixed

Functional Appliances Uses:

Intercept & treat jaw discrepancies

Functional Appliances Changes That Occur:

  • Increase/ decrease jaw relationship
  • Change spatial jaw relationship
  • Changes direction of jaw growth
    Accelerates desired growth

Commuinty Denstistry

Read And Learn More:  Percentive Communitive Dentistry Question And Answers

Question 4. Diet counseling.

Diet counseling

  • Steps
  • Introduce diet dairy
  • 24-hour diet record is prepared
  • A daily diet of dairy is advised
  • Analyse complete records
  • Isolating the sugar factors
  • Patients education
  • Consumption of sugar substitutes

Diet counseling Visits:

Diet Counseling First Appointment:

  • A diet diary of 6 consecutive days is prepared
  • The form of particular food taken, its approximate amount along with snacks, candies, syrups, chewing gums consumption is recorded
  • Identify the sugar-containing food items
  • Mark such items with red Xs while others with blue Xs
  • Explain to the patient the harmful effects of sugar-containing substances & explain to decrease the red Xs items while increasing the blue Xs items
  • Teach him as a game
  • Suggest sugar substitutes like peanuts

Diet Counseling Recall Visits:

  • Recall appointments are carried out at regular intervals during the next months
  • During these visits evaluate the patient’s progress & provide reinforcement

Question 5. Interceptive orthodontics.

Interceptive Orthodontics Definition:

It is that phase of the science & art of orthodontics employed to recognize & eliminate potential irregularities & malpositions of the developing dentofacial complex

Interceptive Orthodontics Procedures:

  • Serial Extraction
    • It is the planned extraction of certain deciduous teeth & later specific permanent teeth in orderly sequence & pre-determined pattern
    • Developing anterior crossbite
    • Treated to prevent minor orthodontic problems
  • Interception Of Habits
    • Habits that are intercepted are
      • Thumb sucking
      • Tongue thrusting
      • Mouth breathing
  • Space Regaining
    • Space lost by the mesial movement of the molar can be regained by distal movement of 1st molar
    • Muscular exercise
    • It helps to improve aberrant muscle function
    • Interception of skeletal Malrelation
    • To reduce the severity of the disease
    • Removal of soft tissues & bony barriers

Question 6. Exfoliative cytology.

Exfoliative cytology

Refers to the removal of surface cells for cytological examination

Exfoliative Cytology Uses:

Exfoliative Cytology For Diagnosis:

Routine screening of patients with oral lesions & recurrent carcinoma

Exfoliative Cytology The stains Used Are:

Papanicolaon stain

Question 7. Four-handed dentistry

Four-handed dentistry

It is the term given to the art of seating both the dentist & the dental assistant in such a way that both are within easy reach of the patient’s mouth

Four-handed Dentistry Process:

  • The patient is in a fully supine position
  • The assistant will hand the dentist the particular instrument he wants
  • Assistant can also perform functions like retraction or aspiration

Four-handed Dentistry Advantages:

  • Dentists can completely keep their eyes on the field of operation
  • Less fatigue
  • Greater efficiency
  • Training Period Of Assistant:
  • One or two years

Question 8. Orofacial signs of sexual abuse.

Orofacial signs of sexual abuse

  • Contusion
  • Laceration of
    • Tongue
    • Buccal mucosa
    • Palate
    • Alveolar mucosa
    • Frenum
  • Fractured, displaced, or avulsed teeth
  • Facial bone & jaw fractures
  • Burns
  • Discolored teeth
  • Pulpal necrosis
  • Bruises
  • Lichenification
  • Scarring at the corners of the mouth

Question 9. Expert witness.

Expert witness

  • An expert witness is a witness who by education, training, skill or experience is believed to have expertise & specialized knowledge in a particular subject
  • They are usually instructed to produce a joint statement detailing points of agreement & disagreement
  • They charge a professional fee which is paid by the party
  • They may be issued with a witness summon
  • They must be qualified on the topic of testimony
  • They may also deliver expert evidence

Expert Witness Expert Evidence:

  • Fingerprints
  • Blood analysis
  • DNA fingerprinting

Question 10. Quarantine.

Quarantine Definition:

A period of time during which a vehicle, person, or material suspected of carrying a contiguous disease is detained at a port of entry under enforced isolation to prevent the disease from entering a country

  • It is used to separate & restrict the movement of good persons who may have been exposed to a communicable disease to see if they become ill
  • It can apply to humans as well as animals
  • Quarantine periods are very short

Quarantine Purpose:

  • Prevent the spread of contamination
  • To contain the contamination such that others are not put at risk

Question 11. Perjury.


A crime that occurs when an individual willfully makes a false statement during a judicial procedure after he/she has taken an oath to speak the truth

Perjury Basic Elements:

  • A false statement is made under oath during a judicial proceeding
  • The statement must be material or relevant to the proceeding
  • The witness must have the specific intent to deceive

Perjury Punishment:

  • Fine
  • Imprisonment
  • Both

Miscellaneous Short Question And Answers

Question 1. Positive health.

Positive health

  • It is the group of subjective, biological & functional that increase health & illness target
  • Positive Health Indicator:
  • It is one or a collection of questions that assess the presence of one / several aspects of health as more than the absence of disease or symptoms

Question 2. Sporadic.


  • It means scattered about
  • The cases occur irregularly, haphazardly from time to time & generally infrequently

Question 3. Gingival physiotherapy.

  • Gingival physiotherapy Device used
    • Toothbrush
    • Rubber tip stimulator
    • Interdental cleaning device
  • Gingival physiotherapy Effects
    • Epithelial thickening
    • Increased keratinization
    • Increased mitotic activity

Question 4. Soil, Seed & Sower.

Soil, Seed & Sower

  • It is one of the principles of health education
  • According to it:
  • The people are the soil
  • Seeds: health facts- must be truthful
  • Sower: transmitting media- should be attractive, palatable & acceptable

Question 5. Co-insurance.


  • It is defined as ” an arrangement under which a carrier & the beneficiary are each liable for a share of the cost of the dental services provided”
  • It means that the patient pays a percentage of the total cost of the treatment
  • It helps to keep the premium down
  • Example: The patient has to pay 20% of the cost of the treatment, and the remaining 80% will be paid by the insurance company

Question 6. Folk medicine.

Folk medicine Definition:

It is the treatment of disease or injury based on tradition, especially on oral tradition, often utilizing indigenous plants as remedies

  • It refers to healing practices & ideas of body physiology & health preservation known to a limited segment of the population in a culture
  • It often coexists with formalized education based & institutionalized systems of healing
  • Practices of folk medicine may be influenced by the formalized medical systems


  • Traditional medicine
  • Alternative medicine

Question 7. Emporiatics.


  • It is the specialty of travel medicine dealing with diseases that travelers can acquire especially in the tropics
  • It deals with the prevention & management of health problems of international traveler
  • Example: traveler’s diarrhea
  • It comprises of
    • Prevention
    • Assistance
    • Wilderness medicine
    • Access to healthcare

Question 8. Standard of living.

Standard of living

  • It refers to the level of wealth, comfort, material goods & necessities available to a certain socioeconomic class
  • It is inherent subjective

Standard of living Factors Effecting:

  • Income
  • Quality & availability of employment
  • Poverty rate
  • Housing
  • Hours of work
  • Quality health care
  • Quality of education
  • Life expectancy
  • Incidence of disease
  • Cost of services
  • Environmental Quality

Question 9. Mores.


  • They are norms or customs which express fundamental values of society
  • They are derived from the established practices of a society rather than from written laws
  • They consist of shared understandings about the kinds of behavior likely to evoke approval, disapproval, toleration, or sanction, within particular contexts

Question 10. Need for dental care.

Need for dental care Types:

  • Normative need
    • It is the requirement for care as determined by expert opinion
  • Felt need
    • It is the requirement of care as determined by the patient or public
  • Expressed need
    • It arises out of attempts by members of the public to seek attention for their perceived needs

Need for dental care Approaches to Estimate Need:

  • Surveys of dental health status
  • Surveys of need for dental care using a questionnaire
  • Analyses of service or treatment records

Question 11. Accretion.


It is a process where most of the fluoride is buried within the mineral crystallites during the period of crystal growth

Question 12. Census.


  • It is the collection of information from all the individuals in a population
  • It is the total process of collecting, completing & publishing demographic, economic & social data pertaining at a specified time or times to all persons in a community

Census Disadvantages:

  • Expensive
  • Time-consuming
  • Less accurate

Question 13. Primordial prevention.

Primordial prevention

  • It is the prevention of the emergence or development of risk factors in countries or population groups in which they have not yet appeared
  • Primordial prevention is receiving special attention in the prevention of chronic diseases
  • In it, efforts are directed toward discouraging children from adopting harmful lifestyles
  • The main intervention in primordial prevention is through individual & mass education

Question 14. Hidden caries.

Hidden caries

  • It is a term used to describe occlusal dentin caries that is missed on visual examination but is large enough & demineralized enough to be detected radiographically
  • The detection rate of such lesions will depend upon the prevalence of caries in the population
  • Occlusal enamel appears sound or only minimally demineralized
  • It is difficult to diagnosed

Question 15. Clinical manifestation of AIDS.

Clinical manifestation of AIDS

  • Unexplained diarrhea
  • Fatigue
  • Malaise
  • Loss of body weight
  • Fever
  • Night sweat
  • Oral thrush
  • Generalized lymphadenopathy
  • Enlarged spleen
  • Opportunistic infections

Question 16. Deductible.


  • It is stipulated flat sum that the patient must pay towards the cost of treatment before the benefits of the program go into effect
  • It is sometimes called” front-end-payment”

Question 17. Space maintainers.

Space maintainers Definition:

it is a device used to maintain the space created by the loss of deciduous teeth

Space Maintainer Requirements:

  • Maintain the space created
  • Restores function
  • Prevent supra eruption of opposing teeth
  • Simple to construct
  • Withstand functional forces
  • Do not exert excessive forces
  • Maintain oral hygiene
  • Allow growth of permanent teeth
  • Should not interfere with oral function

Question 18. Geriatric dentistry.

Geriatric dentistry

  • It is the delivery of dental care to older adults involving the diagnosis, prevention & treatment of problems associated with normal aging & age-related disease as part of an interdisciplinary professionals
  • In older individuals, dental disease is more common due to
  • Decreased immunity
  • Presence of systemic disease

Common Oral Problems Are:

  • Periodontitis
  • Attrition
  • Root caries
  • Early edentulism

Question 19. Epizootic.


  • An epidemic outbreak of the disease in an animal population often with the implication that it may extend to humans
  • It can lead to an epidemic among humans who are exposed to disease animals
  • It may be
  • Restricted to a specific area/ local
  • Genera
  • It affects a large number of animals at the same time within a particular region

Question 20. Seasonal trends.

Seasonal trends

  • It is a prominent feature of infectious disease occurrence
  • Example: Measles & varicella are usually found with their peak incidence during the early spring season
  • Similarly, upper respiratory tract infections show an increase during the winter season & GIT infections have a seasonal rise during the summer months
  • The seasonal variation in disease occurrence can be attributed to changes in environmental conditions like temperature, humidity, rainfall, overcrowding, etc.

Question 21. Critical pH.

Critical pH

  • It represents the demineralization-remineralization cycle
  • At critical pH of 5.5 or below
    • Hydrogen ions (H+) react with the phosphate group present in the oral cavity
    • Results in the formation of hypophosphate
    • Due to this, hydroxyapatite crystals dissolve & are termed dimerization
  • At neutral pH
    • With adequate presence of calcium & phosphorous, dissolution is inhibited

Question 22. Newburgh Kingston study.

Newburgh Kingston study

  • On May 2nd, 1945, sodium fluoride was added to the drinking water of Newburg on the Hudson River
  • Kingston town was the control
  • After 10 years of fluoridation, Ast et al in 1956 reported that the DMF rate had fallen from 23.5% to 13.9%
  • It thus confirmed the caries inhibitory property of fluoride in drinking water

Question 23. Prevalence of HIV.

Prevalence of HIV

  • It refers to the percentage of people ages 15-49 who are infected with HIV
  • It is the number of persons living with HIV at a given time regardless of the time of infection, whether the person has received a diagnosis or the stage of HIV disease
  • The HIV prevalence rate in India is less than in numerous other countries
  • During the 1990s, HIV infection rates rose like an epidemic affecting every Indian society
  • A rise of 0.1% of the population adds more than half a million HIV patients
  • The north-east & south of India has got high HIV rates

Question 24. Customs & habits.


  • It refers to practices that have been repeated by a number of generations, practices that tend to be followed simply because they have been followed in the past
  • They have a traditional, automatic, mass character

Customs Habits:

  • It is defined as the tendency towards an act that has become a repeated performance, relatively fixed, consistent & easy to perform by an individual
  • It is a purely personal affair, not entailing any obligation
  • Example: Smoking a cigarette after dinner

Question 25. Blanket referral.

Blanket referral

  • It is an effective program in many schools
  • It consists of the referral of all children to their family dentists
  • In this program, all children are given referral cards to take home and subsequently to the dentist who signs the cards on completion of examination, treatment or both
  • The signed cards are then returned to the school nurse or classroom teacher

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