Infectious Diseases Important Notes

Infectious Diseases Important Notes

  1. Gas gangrene
    • Caused by clostridium perfrigens
    • It is characterised by skin color change from pallor to bronze/ purple
    • Skin is tense and tender
    • Gas in the tissues is elaborated by crepitus or visible on radiograph
    • Treatment
    • Surgical debridement
    • Antibiotic therapy with high dose of 4 penicillin, clindamycin, and metronidazole
    • Hyperbaric oxygen therapy
  2. Hyperbaric therapy is used for treatment of
    • Gas gangrene
    • Osteoradionecrosis
    • Chronic osteomyelitis
  3. Rubella ( German measles)
    • It is caused by a paramyxovirus
    • It is spread by droplet infection
    • It is characterised by Koplik’s spots on the buccal mucosa which is seen as small white spots surrounded by erythema
    • It is followed by the appearance of rash first on the back of ears and at hairline and maximum on face
    • Rubella in early pregnancy causes
      • Congenital abnormalities like deafness
      • Spontaneous abortion
      • Congenital heart diseases like persistent patent ductus arteriosus, atrial septal defect, etc
    • Complications
      • Pneumonia
      • Encephalitis
      • Otitis media
  4. Hepatitis E
    • It is also called Non-A or Non-B hepatitis
    • Caused by HEV which is an RNA virus
    • Spreads by faeco oral route
    • Clinical illness resembles hepatitis A infection
    • Pregnant women are particularly liable to acute hepatic failure
    • Epidemics are almost exclusively caused by hepatitis E virus
  5. Viruses and infections caused by themInfectious Diseases Viruses And Infections Caused By Them
  6. Classification of virus

    • DNA Virus
      • Pox viridae
        • Small pox
        • Molluscus
        • Contagiosum
      • Herpesviridae
      • Adenoviridae
        • Major cause for nonbacterial pharyngitis and tonsillitis
      • Papovaviridae
      • Hepadnaviridae
    • RNA Virus

      • Picornaviridae
        • Polio
        • Coxsackie
        • Hepatitis A
        • Rhinovirus
      • Orthoviridae
        • influenza
    • Paramyxoviridae
    • Retrovirus
    • Togaviridae
    • Rhabdoviridae
    • Flaviviridae
    • Calciviridae
  7. Types of fever In different infections
    • Saddleback fever – dengue
    • Step ladder fever – typhoid
    • Pell Ebstein fever – brucellosis and Hodgkin’s disease
    • Double rise of temperature in a day – kalaazar
  8. Clinical features of syphilis
    • Congenital syphilis
      • Hutchison’s triad
      • Saddle nose
      • Sabre tibia
      • Rhagades
      • Bossing of frontal and parietal bones
      • Hypoplastic maxilla
      • Salt and pepper scars on retina
    • Primary syphilis
      • Painless chancre
      • Painless palpable rubbery inguinal lymph nodes
    • Secondary syphilis
      • Fever, malaise
      • Maculopapular rash on trunks and limbs
      • Condylomalata
      • Mucous patches in the genitalia, mouth, and pharynx
      • Snail track ulcers in mouth
    • Tertiary syphilis
      • Gumma
      • Cardiovascular syphilis
      • Aortitis
      • Aortic aneurysm
      • Aortic incompetence
      • Neurosyphilis
      • Tabesdorsalis
      • Meningovascular disease
      • General paralysis
  9. Complications of different infectionInfectious Diseases Complications Of Different Infection
  10. Rashes in different diseasesInfectious Diseases Rashes In Different Diseases
  11. Spots in different diseases

Read And Learn More: General Medicine Question and Answers


  1. Clostridium perfrigens causes gas gangrene
  2. Clostridium tetani causes tetanus
  3. Clostridium difficile causes pseudomembranous colitis
  4. Koplik’s spots is characteristic feature of measles
  5. Rubella is transmitted by aerosol infection
  6. Hepatitis A and E spread by faeco-oral route
  7. Hepatitis B, C, and D spread by parenteral route
  8. Hepatitis A affects children more than adults


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