Gluteal Region Lower Limb Question And Answers

Gluteal Region Question And Answers

Question 1. Give a description of the gluteal region. Mention about the superficial and deep fascia.

Gluteal region

It is a large area covering the side and back of the pelvis. It extends from the iliac crest to the gluteal fold. The muscles, nerves, and vessels in the pelvis are covered by the gluteus maximus muscle and buttock.

  • Superficial Fascia
    • It contains:
      • A thick layer of fat, especially in females.
      • Cutaneous nerves.
  • Deep Fascia
    • Thck over the gluteus medius muscle.
    • But it is thin over the gluteus maximus muscle and encloses the muscle on splitting.

Question 2. List the muscles of the gluteal region.

Muscles Of Gluteal Region They are:

  • Intrinsic muscles are:
    • Gluteus maximus
    • Gluteus medius
    • Gluteus minimus
    • Pyriform
    • Superior Gemelli
    • Inferior Gemelli
    • Obturator internus
    • Obturator externus
    • Quadratus femoris.
  • Extrinsic muscle
    • Tensor fascia lata.

Question 3. Write a note on the gluteus maximus muscle.

Gluteus maximus muscle

Gluteal Region Attachments Of The Gluteus Maximus

Gluteus Maximus Origin

  • Outer slope of a dorsal segment of the iliac crest
  • Posterior gluteal line
  • Posterior part of gluteal surface of ilium behind the posterior gluteal line
  • Aponeurosis of erector spinae
  • Dorsal surface of lower part of the sacrum
  • Side of coccyx
  • Sacrotuberous ligament
  • Fascia covering gluteus medius.

Read And Learn More: Anatomy Question And Answers 

Gluteus Maximus Insertion

  • Deep fiers of lower part of the muscle are inserted into the gluteal tuberosity
  • The greater part of muscle is inserted into the iliotibial tract.

Gluteus Maximus Nerve Supply

  • Inferior gluteal nerve.
  • Gluteus Maximus Actions
  • Chief extensor of the hip joint
  • Assist in standing up from the sitting position.

Question 4. What are the structures undercover gluteus maximus?

The structures undercover gluteus maximus

Gluteal Region Structures Under Cover Of Gluteus Maximus

Structures Undercover Gluteus Maximus

  1. Muscles
    • Gluteus medius
    • Gluteus minimus
    • Reflcted head of rectus femoris
    • Pyriformis
    • Obturator internus with 2 gemelli
    • Quadratus femoris
    • Obturator externus
    • Origin of 4 hamstrings
    • Insertion of upper fiers of adductor magnus
  2. Vessels
    • Superior gluteal vessels
    • Inferior gluteal vessels
    • Inferior pudendal vessels
    • Ascending branch of medial circumflex femoral artery
    • Trochanteric anastomosis
    • Cruciate anastomosis
    • First perforating artery
  3. Nerves
    • Superior gluteal nerve
    • Inferior gluteal nerve
    • Sciatic nerve
    • The posterior cutaneous nerve of thigh
    • Nerve to quadratus femoris
    • Pudendal nerve
    • Nerve to obturator internus
    • Perforating cutaneous nerves
  4. Bones and joints
    • Ilium
    • Ischium with ischial tuberosity
    • Upper end of the femur with the greater trochanter
    • Sacrum
    • Coccyx
    • Hip joint
    • Sacroiliac joint
  5. Ligaments
    • Sacrotuberous
    • Sacrospinous
    • Ischiofemoral
  6. Bursae
    • Trochanteric bursa of gluteus maximus
    • Bursa of the ischial tuberosity
    • Bursa in between the gluteus maximus and vastus lateralis

Question 5. Write about the origin, insertion, nerve supply, and actions of gluteus medius and minimus.

Gluteal Region Gluteus Medius And Minimus

Question 6. Write about the origin, insertion, nerve supply, and actions of the remaining muscles of the gluteal region.

Gluteal Region Muscles Of Gluteal Region

Muscles Of Gluteal Region Clinical Anatomy

  • In the normal posture, the weight is equally distributed on both the lower limbs and the center of gravity falls between the two limbs.
  • If the right limb is lifted of the ground, this normal balancing mechanism is disturbed. Naturally, there will be a tendency for the right pelvis to sink from the normal horizontal plane.
  • This is prevented by the pull of the left gluteus medius and minimus, and the right pelvis is raised from the normal horizontal plane.
  • This mechanism helps to balance the body, when one tends to stand on one leg or even running.
  • But when paralysis of these abductors of one side occurs, the opposite side pelvis sinks. This is a positive Trendelenburg sign, the resulting gait is called lurching gait.

Gluteal Region The Action Of Normal And Paralyzed Gluteus Medius And Minimus Muscles

(1) Dotted arrow shows the normal action of the limb;
(2) Solid arrow shows the paralyzed muscle and
(3) Hollow arrow shows the dipping of the normal limb

  • Intramuscular injections are given in the anterosuperior quadrant of the gluteal region over the gluteus medius and minimus as it is the safest site.
  • When the gluteus maximus is paralyzed, patient cannot stand up from a sitting position without support.
  • Bursae associated with gluteus maximus is prone to bursitis. If it is over ischial tuberosity, it is called ‘never’s bottom’.

Gluteal Region Safe Quadrant And Site For Intramuscular Injection In Gluteal Region

Question 7. Briefly explain gluteal ligaments.

  • Sacrotuberous ligaments
    • Ligament which extends from side to side of the sacrum and coccyx to the medial of the ischial tuberosity.
  • Sacrospinous ligament
    • Ligament which extends from the ischial spine to the side of the sacrum and coccyx.
  • Sacrotuberous and sacrospinous ligaments converts the greater and lesser sciatic notch to greater and lesser sciatic foramen respectively.

Gluteal Region Multiple Choice Questions

Question 1. Th structure coming through the lesser sciatic foramen is:

  1. Tendon of obturator internus
  2. Pudendal nerve
  3. Internal pudendal artery
  4. Nerve to obturator internus

Answer: 1. Tendon of obturator internus

Question 2. For surgical access to the femoral neck, the greater trochanter is separated. All the muscles will be removed with greater trochanter, except:

  1. Piriformis
  2. Gluteus medius
  3. Gluteus minimus
  4. Quadrats femoris

Answer: 4. Quadrats femoris

Question 3. Which of the following has the same root value as that of tibial nerve?

  1. Sciatic nerve
  2. Common peroneal nerve
  3. Obturator nerve
  4. Accessory obturator nerve

Answer: 1. Sciatic nerve

Question 4. Which of the following muscle is not supplied by obturator nerve?

  1. Part of adductor magnus inserted into linea aspera
  2. Obturator internus
  3. Obturator externus
  4. Gracilis

Answer: 2. Obturator internus

Question 5. Trendelenburg sign is positive in defective:

  1. Gluteus maximus muscle
  2. Gluteus medius
  3. Gluteus minimus
  4. Both b and c

Answer: 4. Both b and c



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