Diseases Of The Gastrointestinal System Notes

Diseases Of The Gastrointestinal System Important Notes

  1. Barium swallow
    • Uses
      • To study the gastrointestinal tract
      • Visualize break in gut mucosa
      • Detects mucosal abnormalities
      • Detects motility disorders
      • Shows filling defect caused by varices or tumor
      • Detects hiatus hernia or diverticulum
  2. Stool examinationDiseases Of The Gastrointestinal System Stool Examination
  3. Dental caries
    • It is progressive destruction of mineral and organic constituents of both enamel and dentin
    • Fluoride is used to protect it
    • Etiological agent
      • Bad oral hygiene
      • Staph. Aureus responsible for initiation of caries activity
      • Lactobacillus leads to acid formation
    • Progression of disease
      • Dental caries → acute pulpitis → periapical granuloma → periapical cyst
  4. Ludwig’s angina
    • It is a subcutaneous infection involving all three salivary glands – parotid, submandibular and sub lingual
    • Clinical features
    • Swelling on floor of mouth
    • Elevation of tongue
    • Difficulty in breathing or chewing
  5. Periodontal disease
    • Progression of disease
      • Gingivitis → involvement of alveolar bone and periodontal ligament → bone resorption → loss of attachment of periodontal ligament → pocket formation
    • Result
      • Mobile teeth
      • Recurrent abscess formation
      • Poor prognosis
  6. Acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis (ANUG)
    • Etiology
      • Fusiform spirochaetes
    • Clinical features
      • Gingival bleeding
      • Gingival necrosis
      • Ulceration
      • Halitosis
      • Regional lymphadenopathy
  7. Changes in gingiva in different diseasesDiseases Of The Gastrointestinal System Changes In Gingiva In Different Diseases
  8. Causes of stomatitis
    • Infective
      • Bad oral hygiene
      • Low immunity
    • Nutritional
      • Iron deficiency
      • Vitamin B complex deficiency
  9. Drugs used in different diseases of oral cavityDiseases Of The Gastrointestinal System Drugs Used In Different Diseases Of Oral Cavity
  10. Dysphagia
    • It is defined as a sensation of obstruction of the passage of food through the mouth, pharynx, or esophagus
    • Causes
      • Extrinsic pressure – mediastinal glands, goiter, enlarged left atrium
      • Intrinsic lesion – foreign bodies, stricture, lower oesophageal rings, pharyngeal pouch
      • Oesophageal motility disorders – scleroderma, diabetes mellitus
  11. Plummer Vinson syndrome
    • It is characterized by dysphagia, iron deficiency anemia, dystrophy of nails and glossitis
  12. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding
    • Characterised by haematemesis and melaena
    • Causes
      • Peptic ulcer
      • Gastric erosion
      • Varices
      • Oesophagitis
      • Cancer of stomach or esophagus
  13. Mallory Weiss tear
    • It is one of the cause of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding
    • It occurs at the oesophagogastric junction
  14. GERD
    • Burning pain is produced by bending, stooping, or lying down
    • Pain seldom radiates to arm
    • Pain precipitates by drinking hot liquids or alcohols
    • Relieved by antacids
  15. Dyspepsia or peptic ulcer
    • It means an ulcer in the wall of stomach or duodenum caused by the digestive action of gastric juice
    • Types
      • Gastric ulcer
    • It is peptic ulcer occurring in stomach
    • In it pain occurs while eating or drinking and is relieved by vomiting
    • It is associated with anorexia and weight loss
      • Duodenal ulcer
    • It is peptic ulcer found in the duodenum
    • In it pain is felt 1-2 hours after food intake and during night
    • Pain is relieved by taking food
  16. Gastritis
    • It is acute or chronic inflammation of stomach
    • Types:Diseases Of The Gastrointestinal System Gastritis Types
  17. Diarrhea
    • It refers to frequent loose stools
    • Bacteria causing it are
      • Staph. Aureus
      • Bacillus cereus
      • CI. perfringens
      • Cl. Botulinum
      • Salmonella
      • Vibrio cholera
    • Treatment
      • Fluid replacement
      • Antibiotics
        • Oxytetracycline, ciprofloxacin, metronidazole
  18. Traveller’s diarrhea
    • Acute diarrhea seen in tourists
    • May resolve spontaneously
    • Drug used is loperamide in adults

Diseases Of The Gastrointestinal System Notes Periodontal disease

Read And Learn More: General Medicine Question and Answers

  1. Malabsorption syndrome
    • Refers to defective absorption of one or more essential nutrients through the intestine
    • Etiology
      • Disorders of maldigestion
      • Deficiency of bile acids
      • Genetic abnormality
      • Metabolic defects
    • Treatment
      • Gluten-free diet
      • Vitamin and mineral supplements
      • Corticosteroids
  2. Lactose intolerance
    • Occurs due to a deficiency of lactose
    • Clinical features
      • Intestinal colic
      • Distension of abdomen
      • Increased flatus
        • After ingestion of milk
      • Followed by diarrhoea
    • Treatment
      • Intake of lactose-restricted diet
  3. Amoebiasis
    • Caused by entamoeba histolytica
    • Clinical features
      • Fever, nausea, vomiting
      • 2-4 loose stools per day mixed with blood and mucous
      • Pam in abdomen
      • Necrotizing colitis with mucosal sloughing, ulceration, and bleeding
    • Drugs used
      • Oral metronidazole 800 mg TID for 5 days or
      • Oral tinidazole 2 g daily for 3 days or
      • Oral secnidazole 2 g single dose
  4. Hematemesis and hemoptysisDiseases Of The Gastrointestinal System Hemetemesis And Hemoptysis

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