Disease Of Connective Tissues Bones And Joints Short Essays

Disease Of Connective Tissues Bones And Joints Short Essays

Question 1. Osteoporosis-clinical features and treatment



  • Osteoporosis is a disease characterised by increased porosity of the skeleton resulting from reduced bone mass

Osteoporosis Types:

  1. Localized
  2. Generalized
    • Primary
      • Postmenopausal
      • Senile
  3. Secondary
    • Endocrine disorders
    • Neoplasia
    • Gastrointestinal disorders

Question 2. Rheumatoid arthritis


Rheumatoid arthritis

  • Rheumatoid arthritis is a systemic disease that usually affects many joints
  • It is characterised by the progressive destruction of the joint structures


  • Increased serum IgG
  • Increased rheumatoid factor
  • Presence of antinuclear antibodies

Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Features:

  • Age- third and fourth decade of life
  • Sex- females are more affected
  • fever
  • Malaise
  • Weight loss
  • Anaemia
  • Raised ESR
  • Joint becomes swollen and stiff
  • Presence of pain
  • Restricted jaw movements
  • Tenderness in joints
  • Malocclusion

Rheumatoid Arthritis Treatment:

  • Systemic steroid therapy
  • Antibiotics

Question 3. Gout



  • Gout occurs due to increased production of uric acid or decreased renal excretion of uric acid

Gout Clinical Features:

  • It comprises of four stages
  • Onset may be insidious or sudden
  • Recurrent attacks
  • Aggregate deposits of monosodium urate monohydrate in and around the joints
  • Renal diseases
  • Uric acid nephrolithiasis

Gout Diagnosis:

  • Elevation of serum uric acid levels
  • Presence of urate crystals in synovial fluid

Read And Learn More: General Medicine Question and Answers

Gout Treatment:

  • NSAIDS are used

Question 4. Scleroderma



  • Scleroderma is characterized by progressive fibrosis and calcification of skin and mucosa


  • Endocrinal disturbances
  • Nervous disturbances
  • Vascular disturbances
  • Allergic reactions
  • Infections

Disease Of Connective Tissues Bones And Joints

Scleroderma Clinical Features:

  • Cutaneous changes- indurated edema and erythema of the skin
  • Fixation of epidermis to underlying tissues
  • CVS disturbances
  • CNS disturbances
  • The tongue becomes stiff and broad
  • Difficulty in mouth opening
  • Xerostomia

Scleroderma Treatment:

  • Corticosteroid therapy

Question 5. COX-2 inhibitors


COX-2 inhibitors

  • COX-2 inhibitors are advantageous
  • Some of the COX-2 inhibitors are:
    • Meloxicam
    • Coxibs- celecoxib, rofecoxib, parecoxib, etori- coxib, valdecoxib
    • Nimesulide

COX-2 inhibitors Properties:

  • Analgesic
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Anti-pyretic effect
  • Less gastric ulcerogenic effect
  • Do not inhibit platelet aggregation

COX-2 inhibitors Disadvantages:

  • Increases risk of cardiovascular events
  • Increases cerebrovascular thrombotic events
  • Increases risk of myocardial infarction and stroke

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