Developmental Disorders Notes

Developmental Disorders Important Notes

1. Developmental defects

Oral Medicine Developmental Disorders Developmental defects

2. Syndromes associated with fissured tongue

  • Melkerson Rosenthal syndrome
  • Down’s syndrome

3. Synonymsforgeographictongue

  • Erythema migrans
  • Wandering rash
  • Benign migratory glossitis

4. Ghost teeth/ Regional odontodysplasia

  • Etiology:
    • Defect in mineralization
  • Clinical features:
    • Enamel and dentin are very thin
    • The pulp chamber is extremely large
    • Maxillary anterior teeth are more frequently involved

5. Dentinogenesis imperfecta

Oral Medicine Developmental Disorders Dentinogenesis imperfecta

6. Defect in the papilla of the tongue

Oral Medicine Developmental Disorders Defect in papilla of tongue

7. Submerged teeth

  • They are deciduous teeth that are ankylosed
  • Prevents subsequent replacement by permanent teeth
  • Affected teeth lack mobility
  • Gives solid sound on percussion
  • X-ray shows partial/ complete absence of periodontal ligament space

Submerged teeth

8. Dentin dysplasia

Oral Medicine Developmental Disorders Dentin dysplasia

9. Talon’s cusp

  • Located on the lingual surface of anterior teeth
  • Extends half distance for CEJ to incisal edge
  • Composed of normal enamel and dentin
  • Contains horn of pulpal tissue
  • Seen in
    • Mohr syndrome
    • Rubinstein Taybe syndrome
    • Sturge Weber syndrome

10. Teeth involved in different defects

Oral Medicine Developmental Disorders Teeth involved in different defects

11. Taurodontism

  • The body of the tooth is enlarged at the expense of the root
  • Pulp chambers are elongated
  • Apical displacement of bifurcation/trifurcation
  • The Crown has a rectangular shape
  • Classification
    • Hypotaurodont – bifurcation is slightly apical. It is a mild form
    • Hypertaurodont – it is in extreme form. Bifurcation is near apices
    • Mesotaurodont- between Hypertaurodont and hypotaurodont

12. Syndromes associated with taurodontism

  • Klinefelter syndrome
  • Tricho-into-osseous syndrome

13. Turner’s hypoplasia

  • Etiology
    • Trauma
    • Periapical infection of deciduous teeth
  • Clinical features
    • The teeth affected are – permanent maxillary incisors, maxillary or mandibular premolars
    • Teeth have Hypoplastic crown
    • Range from mild discoloration to severe pitting.

Developmental Disorders

Oral Medicine Developmental Disorders Long Essays

Question 1. Clinical examination of the tongue. Describe clini¬cal features of glossodynia and its treatment plan.



It is defined as a painful tongue


  • Local factors:
    • Excessive use of tobacco
    • Excessive drinking
    • Bruxism
    • Irritating dentures, clasp, prosthesis
    • Referred pain from tonsils
    • Malformed teeth, malocclusion
    • TMJ disturbances
  • Systemic factors
    • Multiple myeloma
    • Amyloidosis
    • Pernicious anemia
    • Pellagra
    • Diabetes

Read And Learn More: Oral Medicine Question and Answers

    • Gastric disturbances
    • Xerostomia
    • Prolonged antibiotic activity
  • Neurological factors
    • Trigeminal neuralgia
    • Glossopharyngeal neuralgia
    • Cerebrovascular accident
  • Idiopathic
    • Depression
    • Cancerophobia
    • Neurosis

Clinical Features:

  • Presence of burning, tingling, or numbness of the tongue
  • It may occur as isolated features or a group of symptoms
  • It may occur with observable changes over the tongue


  • Removal of local cause- construction of plastic retainers
  • Treatment of muscular problems- use of muscle relaxants like diazepam
  • Treatment of the systemic cause
  • Surgical exploration with neuropathy
  • Use of topical analgesia- 0.5% lidocaine

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