Antiviral Drugs Classification Question and Answers

Oral Medicine Drugs Short Essays

Question 1. Steroids in density. (or) steroids.

Answer:

Steroids in density

Oral Medicine Drugs Steroids in density

Question 2. Antiviral drugs, (or) Mention four anti-viral drugs.

Answer:

Antiviral drugs

Oral Medicine Drugs Antiviral drugs

Question 3. Antifungal drugs.

Answer:

Antifungal drugs

Oral Medicine Drugs Antifungal drugs

Question 4. Classification uses and adverse effects of Oral Penicillins.

Answer:

Oral Penicillins Classification:

  • Natural
    • Penicillin G
  • Semi synthetic
    • Acid resistant: Penicillin V
    • Penicillinase resistant: Methicillin, Oxacillin
    • Aminopenicillin: Ampicillin, Bacampicillin
    • Antipsuedomonal penicillin:
    • Carboxypenicillin: carbenicillin
    • Ureidopenicillin: Azlocillin, Mazlocillin

Oral Penicillins Uses:

  • Orodental infection:
    • It is effective against a variety of aerobic and anaero-bic infections
  • For pneumonia, meningitis, and osteomyelitis. Penicillin G is the drug of choice
  • Periodontal abscess response to Penicillin G
  • Penicillin G is the drug of choice for actinomycosis
  • Penicillin G is the drug of choice for anthrax, trench mouth
  • Benzathine penicillin is used as a prophylactic antibiotic

Oral Penicillins Adverse Effects:

  • Hypersensitivity reactions:
    • Manifestations range from skin rashes, urticaria, fever, bronchospasm, serum sickness an rarely exfoliative dermatitis, and anaphylaxis
  • Large doses of penicillin may produce confusion, muscle twitchings, convulsions ad coma
  • Suprainfections are rare due to its narrow spectrum of activity
  • Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction:
    • When penicillin is injected in a patient with syphilis, there is sudden destruction of spirochaetes and release of its lytic products
    • This triggers a reaction with fever, myalgia, shivering, exacerbation of syphilitic lesions, and vascular collapse

Question 5. Indications and Contraindication of Corticosteroids.

Answer:

Corticosteroids Indications:

  • Rheumatoid arthritis: in progressive disease steroids are given along with NSAIDs
  • Osteoarthritis: it is given intra articularly with a minimum of 3 months intervals between two injections of steroids into the joints
  • Allergic diseases: steroids are given in cases with angioneurotic edema, hay fever
  • Bronchial asthma: acute exacerbations of asthma are treated with prednisolone
  • Collagen diseases: glucocorticoids are the first line of drugs
  • Eye diseases: allergic conjunctivitis are treated with steroid eye drops
  • Renal diseases: steroids are the first line of drug
  • Skin diseases: systemic steroids are life saving in pemphigus
  • Liver diseases: steroids are useful in autoimmune chronic active hepatitis
  • Large doses of dexamethasone reduce cerebral oedema
  • Steroids are useful in the treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia

Corticosteroids Contraindications:

  • Peptic ulcer
  • Hypertension
  • Infections
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Ocular infections
  • Osteoporosis

Read And Learn More: Oral Medicine Question and Answers

  • Psychoses
  • Epilepsy
  • CCF
  • Glaucoma
  • Renal failure

Oral Medicine Drugs Short Answers

Question 1. Acyclovir.

Answer:

Acyclovir

  • It is effective against herpes simplex virus, Varicella Zoster virus and Epstein Barr virus

Acyclovir Mechanism:

  • Acyclovir is taken up by the various infected cells
  • It is converted to acyclovir triphosphate
  • This inhibits viral DNA synthesis by inhibiting viral; DNA polymerases and causing DNA chain termination

Acyclovir Adverse Effects:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Headache
  • Rashes
  • Burning and itching
  • It may cause renal and neurotoxicity

Acyclovir Uses:

  • Herpes simplex virus infections
  • Diseases of the mouth, face, skin, oesophagus, and brain
  • It is effective against primary and recurrent genital and labial herpes
  • Acyclovir eye drops are effective against HSV kerato-conjunctivitis
  • Herpes zoster
  • Acyclovir shortens the duration of illness
  • Chickenpox
  • Acyclovir reduces the duration and severity of illness

Question 2. Diclofenac sodium.

Answer:

Diclofenac sodium

  • It is an analgesic, antipyretic, and anti inflammatory agent
  • Its tissue penetrability is good
  • It attains good concentration in synovial fluid
  • Adverse effects are mild

Diclofenac sodium Dose:

  • 50 mgbds/ tds
  • The gel is available for topical application

Diclofenac sodium Uses:

  • Treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions like rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis
  • Acute musculoskeletal pain, painful dental lesions
  • Postoperatively for relief of pain and inflammation

Question 3. NSAIDs

Answer:

NSAIDs

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are aspirin-type or non-opioid analgesics

NSAIDs Classification:

1. Non selective COX inhibitors

  • Salicylic acid derivatives
    • Aspirin, sodium salicylate, diflunisal
  • Para-aminophenol derivatives
    • Paracetamol
  • Pyrazolone derivative
    • Phenylbutazone, azapropazone
  • Indole acetic acid derivative
    • Indomethacin. etodolac
  • Aryl acetic acid derivative
    • Diclofenac, aciclofenac, ketorolac
  • Propionic acid derivative
    • Ibuprofen, carprofen, naproxen, ketoprofen
  • Anthranilic acids
    • Plufenamic acid, mefanamic acid
  • Oxicams
    • Piroxicam tenoxicam
  • Alkanones
    • Nabumetone

2. Selective COX-2 inhibitors

  • Nimesulide, celecoxib, rofecoxib

Mechanism Of Action:

  • NSAIDs inhibit the prostaglandin synthesis by inhibiting the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase

Question 4. Anti-oxidants.

Answer:

Anti-oxidants

  • Antioxidants is a molecule capable of inhibiting the oxidation of other molecules

Anti-oxidants Uses:

  • Inhibit oxidation reactions
  • Used as an ingredient in dietary supplements
  • Prevents cancer, coronary heart disease
  • Industrial use as preservatives in food and cosmetics
  • Prevents degradation of rubber and gasoline

Anti-oxidants Agents:

  • Thiols
  • Ascorbic acid
  • Polyphenols
  • Glutathione
  • Superoxide dismutase

Question 5. Analgesics for pulpal pain

Answer:

Analgesics for pulpal pain

  • Analgesics used for pulpal pain are

1. Opioids

  • They have short half-lives
  • Require repeated dosing
  • Side effects are dose-dependent
  • Have high abuse potential
  • Ex: Morphine

2. NSAIDs- Like celecoxib, diclofenac, ibuprufen, naproxen

  • Act by inhibiting cyclo-oxygenase enzyme respon-sible for the formation of prostaglandin that promotes pain and inflammation
  • It is used along with acetaminophen- Ibuprufen 600 mg plus acetaminophen 1000 mg administered every 6 hours for 24 hours is effective

Question 6. Clindamycin

Answer:

Clindamycin

  • It is a congener of lincomycin
  • Bonds to 50S ribosomal subunit

Clindamycin Actions:

  • Suppresses protein synthesis
  • Inhibits streptococci, staphylococci, and pneumococci, and anaerobes

Clindamycin Uses:

  • Anaerobic infections
  • Streptococcal and staphylococcal infections
  • P.jiroveci infection
  • T.gondii
  • Prophylaxis in valvular heart disease patients

Clindamycin Adverse effects:

  • Diarrhea
  • Skin rashes
  • Neuromuscular blockade
  • Intravenous administration causes thrombophlebitis

Oral Medicine Drugs Viva Voce

  1. The required adult dose of acyclovir in severe herpes zoster is 800 mg 5 times daily
  2. The use of corticosteroids is contraindicated in primary herpes
  3. Atropine used in peptic ulcer may lead to Xerostomia
  4. Isoniazid hydrochloride may induce hepatitis
  5. Azathioprine can produce stomatitis and Xerostomia
  6. Pilocarpine and cevemeline are contraindicated in patients with pulmonary disease
  7. The required adult dose of acyclovir in severe herpes zoster is 800 mg 5 times daily
  8. The use of corticosteroids is contraindicated in primary herpes
  9. Atropine used in peptic ulcer may lead to Xerostomia
  10. Isoniazid hydrochloride may induce hepatitis
  11. Azathioprine can produce stomatitis and Xerostomia
  12. Pilocarpine and cevemeline are contraindicated in patients with pulmonary disease

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