Thyroid Hormones And Anti Thyroid Drugs Question And Answers

Thyroid Hormones And Anti Thyroid Drugs Important Notes

1. Thyroid Hormones And Anti Thyroid Drugs Thyroid storm

  • It means thyrotoxicosis
  • Treatment is to reduce the production and conversion of thyroid hormones
  • Drugs used for it are
    • Inhibiting thyroid hormone synthesis.
      • Propylthiouracil
      • Methimazole
      • Carbimazole
    • Inhibiting hormone release
      • Iodine
      • Iodide
    • Destroying thyroid tissue
      • Radioactive iodine
    • To counteract adrenal insufficiency
      • Corticosteroids
    • To control sympathetic symptoms
      • Propanolol

2. Thyroid Hormones And Anti-thyroid drugs

  • Propylthiouracil, carbimazole, and radioactive iodine are anti-thyroid drugs
  • Used in the treatment of
    • Hyperthyroidism
    • Preparation of patients for thyroid surgery

Thyroid Hormones And Anti Thyroid Drugs Long Essays

Question 1. Enumerate antithyroid drugs. Explain the action of the thioamides giving the indications, advantages, and adverse effects of each.

Antithyroid drugs:

  • These drugs inhibit hormone synthesis.
  • They are thioureylenes or thionamides which includes.
    • Propylthiouracil.
    • Methimazole.
    • Carbimazole.

Antithyroid drugs Actions:

Thyroid Hormones And Anti-Thyrid Drug Action

Antithyroid drugs Indications/uses:

1. Graves disease or diffuse toxic goiter.

  • Needs long-term treatment with antithyroid drugs.

2. Toxic nodular goiter.

  • Used when surgery is not indicated like in elderly patients.

3. Preoperatively in hyperthyroid patients.

  • Used along with radioactive iodine to hasten recovery in thyrotoxicosis.

4. Rarely used in hyperthyroidism in pregnancy.

5. Thyroid storm or thyrotoxic crisis.

  • It is a sudden, severe, exacerbation of thyrotoxicosis.
  • Propylthiouracil is used IV.

Read And Learn More: Pharmacology Question and Answers

Antithyroid drugs Advantages:

  • No surgery is required.
  • No injury to parathyroid or recurrent laryngeal nerve.
  • Hypothyroidism, if occurs, is reversible.
  • Can be used in children and young adults also.

Antithyroid drugs Disadvantages:

  • Long-term treatment is required.
  • Poor patient compliance.
  • Drug toxicity.

Antithyroid drugs Adverse effects:

  • Allergic reactions – skin rashes.
  • Jaundice
  • Headache.
  • Hypothyroidism.
  • Agranulocytosis.
  • GIT disturbances.
  • Joint pain.
  • Nephritis, hepatitis
  • Loss of hair, loss of taste.

Thyroid Hormones And Anti Thyroid Drugs Short Essays

Question 1. Radioactive iodine.

Radioactive iodine is a thyroid tissue-destroying agent

  • When given orally, it is rapidly absorbed and is concentrated by the thyroid in the follicles.
  • It emits X-rays as well as β particles.
  • It is used as a sodium salt of 31I dissolved in water.

Radioactive iodine Uses:

1. Small doses – 25 -100 m curie.

  • Used for diagnosis in thyroid function tests.

2. Large doses – 3 – 6 cm curie.

  • Used for treatment of hyperthyroidism.
  • β particles emitted destroy thyroid cells.
  • Thus, it is used in carcinoma of the thyroid.

Radioactive iodine Advantages:

  • Simple and convenient
  • Inexpensive.
  • No surgical risks.
  • Hyperthyroidism is permanently cured.

Radioactive iodine Disadvantages:

  • Slow-acting.
  • The long latent period of response.
  • Hypothyroidism develops.
  • Not suitable for pregnant women, children, and young adults.

Thyroid Hormones And Anti Thyroid Drugs Short Question And Answers

Question 1. Lugol’s iodine.

Lugol’s iodine is a solution of 5% iodine in 10% potassium iodide solution.

  • A daily dose of 5 -15 drops can be used.

Lugol’s iodine Uses:

  • As expectorant
  • In preoperative preparation for thyroidectomy.
  • Thyroid storm.
  • Prophylactic in endemic goiter.
  • As antiseptic.

Question 2. Iodine.

Iodine inhibits the release of thyroid hormone

  • In thyrotoxic patients, symptoms subside in 1 – 2 days.
  • The gland becomes firm and shrinks in size in 10 -14 days.
  • Effects decrease after 15 days.

Iodine Uses:

  • Preoperatively in thyroidectomy.
  • In thyroid storm.
  • Prophylactically in endemic goiter.
  • As antiseptic
  • As expectorant.

Iodine Adverse effects:

  • Allergic reactions – skin rashes, conjunctivitis.
  • Swelling of lips and salivary glands.
  • Fever
  • Lymphadenopathy.

Question 3. Carbimazole.

Carbimazole is a thioamide.

  • Act as thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitor.
  • It is more potent and long-acting.
  • It crosses the placental barrier.

Carbimazole Uses:

  • long-term therapy of thyrotoxicosis.
  • To hasten recovery in thyrotoxicosis.
  • Used in thyrotoxic crisis.

Carbimazole Adverse effects:

  • Allergic reactions
  • Hypothyroidism.
  • GI intolerance
  • Hepatitis, nephritis.
  • Joints pain.
  • Agranulocytosis.

Question 4. Alendronate.

  • It is second generation bisphosphonate
  • Mainly used in osteoporosis
  • Advice to be given on an empty stomach in the morning with plenty of water
  • Avoid lying or having food for at least 30 minutes to avoid oesophagitis
  • Calcium and iron preparation and NSAIDs should not give along with it

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