Red And White Lesions Short Question and Answers

Oral Medicine Red And White Lesions Short Answers

Question 1. Etiology and risk factors for oral cancer


Etiology and risk factors for oral cancer

Oral medicine Red And White lLsions Etiology and risk factors for oral cancer

Question 2. Local and general predisposing factors for oral candidiasis


  • Local predisposing factors
    • Changes in oral microbial flora
      • Occurs owing to administration of antibiotics, excessive use of antibacterial mouth rinses, xerostomia, secondary to anticholinergic agents
    • Local irritant
      • Chronic irritants due to dentures, orthodontic appliances, and heavy smoke
  • Systemic factors
    • Drug therapy
      • Administration of corticosteroids, cytotoxic drugs, immunosuppressive agents
    • Acute and chronic diseases
      • Leukemia, lymphoma, diabetes, and tuberculosis
    • Malnutrition
    • Age- Infancy, pregnancy, and old age
    • Endocrinopathy- Hypoparathyroidism, hypotony- iodism, Addison’s disease
    • Immunodeficiency states

Question 3. Traumatic keratosis


Traumatic keratosis

It refers to an isolated area of thickened whitish oral mucosa


  • Local irritants- 111 fitting dentures, sharp clasp, and rough edges of restoration
  • Cigarette smoking

Clinical Features:

  • Commonly involves are lip and buccal mucosa
  • Appears as an isolated thickened whitish area
  • Glassblower’s white patch- it is a variant of traumatic keratosis affecting the cheek and lips which occurs in a glass factory


  • Removal of local Irritants

Question 4. Carcinoma in situ.


Carcinoma in situ

It is the most severe stage of epithelial dysplasia, which involves the entire thickness of the epithelium with the basement membrane intact

Carcinoma in situ Clinical Features:

  • Age: Elderly patients
  • Sex: common in males

Carcinoma in situ Presentation:

  • Appears as white plaques or ulcerated areas
  • Site: Floor of the mouth, tongue, lip,etc
  • Appears as leukoplakia or erythroplakia

Carcinoma in situ Treatment:

  • Surgery
  • Radiotherapy
  • Electrocautery

Question 5. Id reaction.


Id reaction

  • A person with chronic Candida infection may develop a secondary response characterized by localized or generalized sterile vesicopapular rash
  • It may be due to an allergic response to Candida antigen.

Question 6. White sponge nevus.



  • An autosomal dominant genetic defect

White sponge nevus Features:

  • Diffuse, thickened white lesion
  • Has a corrugated appearance
  • Occurs bilaterally over Buccal mucosa
  • Occasionally involves the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and labial mucosa

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  • It is a painless lesion
  • Persistent in nature
  • Usually present during early childhood
  • May also involve mucosa of the larynx, esophagus, and vagina

White sponge nevus Differential Diagnosis:

  • Leukoedema
  • Frictional keratosis
  • Plaque type lichen planus
  • Chronic hyperplastic candidiasis

White sponge nevus Treatment:

  • No treatment necessary

Question 7. Types of oral candidiasis.
 Classification of oral candidiasis.


Types of oral candidiasis

  • Oral Candidiasis
  • Acute
    • Acute pseudomembranous candidiasis
    • Acute atrophic candidiasis
  • Chronic
    • Chronic atrophic candidiasis
      • Denture stomatitis
      • Median rhomboid glossitis
      • Angular cheilitis
  • ID reaction
  • Chronic hyperplastic candidiasis
  • Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis
    • Familial CMC
    • Localized CMC
    • Diffused CMC
    • Candidiasis endocrinopathy syndrome

Question 8. Oral hairy leukoplakia.



  • Hyperplasia of the oral epithelium with a production of excess keratin caused by Epstein- Burr virus infection
  • The surface of the lesion is frequently infected with Candida albicans
  • Occurs most commonly in individuals with compromised immunity secondary to HIV

Oral Hairy Leukoplakia Features:

  • Adherent white plaque located most often on the lateral borders of the tongue
  • The surface of each lesion is characteristically corrugated or shaggy in appearance
  • Typically bilateral
  • Usually painless
  • Persistent lesion
  • More common in young adult males

Oral Hairy Leukoplakia  Differential Diagnosis:

  • Frictional keratosis
  • Plaque type lichen planus
  • Chronic hyperplastic candidiasis
  • Smoking related leukoplakia

Oral Hairy Leukoplakia  Treatment:

  • Some patients respond to high doses of Acyclovir
  • Lesions often recur when treatment is stopped

Question 9. Linea alba.


Linea alba

It refers to the line of keratinization, found on the buccal mucosa parallel to the line of occlusion.


  • Diet: Hard Food
  • Frictional irritation- Due to contact of teeth with Mucosa.
  • Increased overjet
  • Other: Smoking and environmental irritants.

Linea alba Clinical Features:

  • Site: Buccal mucosa at the line of occlusion.
  • Presentation:
    • Palate and gingiva appear whiter.
    • The line extends from the commissure to most posterior teeth.

Linea alba Management:

  • Spontaneous treatment.

Oral Medicine Red And White Lesions Viva Voce

  1. Tobacco is the major causative factor of leukoplakia
  2. Nonsmokers have a high percentage of leukoplakia at the border of the tongue
  3. The floor of the mouth has the highest rate of malignant transformation of leukoplakia
  4. Wickham’s striae are found in reticular type of oral lichen planus
  5. Leukoplakia is the most common precancerous lesion
  6. Krythroplakia is the most malignant precancerous lesion
  7. Civatte bodies is seen in lichen planus
  8. Civatte bodies are often present in spinous and basal layers
  9. Saw tooth retepegs are seen in lichen planus
  10. Wickham’s striae is a feature of lichen planus Candida that occurs in three forms: pseudohyphae, yeast, and chlamydospores
  11. Thrush is prone to occur in debilitated or chronically ill patients
  12. Angular cheilitis is due to chronic atrophic candidiasis

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