Pharmacology Miscellaneous Short And Long Essay Question And Answers

Miscellaneous Important Notes

1. Chelating Agents

Miscellaneous Chelating Agents

2. Astringents

  • They are substances that precipitate proteins
  • Affects only the superficial layer
  • Toughen surface making it mechanically stronger
  • Decreases exudation
  • Used in the treatment of
    • Bleeding gums
    • Bleeding piles
    • Alkaloidal poisoning

Miscellaneous Long Essays

Question 1. Define and classify antiseptics. Write in detail about the mechanism of action, different preparations, and uses of phenol.


  • Antiseptic is an agent that destroys micro-organisms on contact and can be used on living tissues


Miscellaneous Antiseptic Classification


Mechanism of Action:

  • It acts by following mechanisms
    • Oxidation of bacterial protoplasm
    • Denaturation of bacterial proteins including enzymes
    • Detergent-like action increases the permeability of the bacterial membrane

Miscellaneous Phenol Mechanism Of Action

Miscellaneous Short Essays

Question 1. Acriflavine

  • Acriflavine is an orange-yellow acridine dye
  • It is active against gram-positive bacteria and gonococci
  • It is non-irritant
  • Solutions lose efficacy on exposure to light, so it is stored in amber bottles
  • It does not retard the healing


  • 1:1000 solution is used in infected wounds
  • 2% is used in vaginitis and cervicitis
  • Bandage impregnated with acriflavine- vaseline is used in burn dressing

Read And Learn More: Pharmacology Question and Answers

Question 2. Chlorhexidine

  • Chlorhexidine is a powerful nonirritating antiseptic that disrupts the bacterial cell membrane
  • It causes the denaturation of intracellular proteins
  • It is more active against gram-positive bacteria


  • As an antiseptic in dentistry
  • As oral rinse or toothpaste
  • In acute necrotizing gingivitis
  • Before periodontal surgery to prevent infections
  • Daily use reduces oral infections in immunocompromised patients


  • Brownish discoloration of teeth
  • Unpleasant after taste
  • Alteration of taste
  • Occasionally oral ulceration

Question 3. Potassium permanganate

  • Potassium permanganate is an oxidizing agent


  • Occurs as purple crystals
  • Highly water soluble
  • Liberates oxygen which oxidizes bacterial protoplasm
  • Has germicidal capacity


  • Used for gargling, douching
  • Irrigating cavities,-urethra, and wounds
  • Used to disinfect water
  • Used for stomach wash in alkaloidal poisoning

Adverse Effects:

  • High concentration causes burns and blistering
  • Promote rusting of surgical instruments

Question 4. Uses of Antiseptics in Dentistry

Miscellaneous Uses Of Antiseptics In Dentistry

Question 5. Bleaching agents

  • Bleaching agents are agents used to remove stains from teeth or to improve their whiteness.

Miscellaneous Bleaching Agents

Question 6. Commonly used antiseptics


Miscellaneous Commonly Used Antiseptics Classification

Question 7. Chelating agents
Define chelation. Mention four chelating agents

  • Chelating agents bind the heavy metal ions and make them nontoxic, the chemical complex formed is called a chelate
  • The process of complex formation is called chelation.

Chelating Agents:

Miscellaneous Chelating Four Agents

Question 8. Dimercaprol

  • Dimercaprol is a colorless, oily liquid
  • Developed by the British during World War II as an antidote to lewisite
  • Hence it is known as British Anti-lewisite or BAL
  • Dimercaprol chelates arsenic, mercury, lead, and other heavy metals


  • Arsenic and mercury poisoning
  • In lead poisoning along with calcium Disodium edetate

Adverse Effects:

  • Hypertension
  • Tachycardia
  • Vomiting
  • Sweating
  • Burning sensation in the lips and mouth
  • Headache

Question 9. EDTA

  • The calcium sodium and Disodium salts of EDTA form stable and highly water-soluble complexes with many
  • divalent and trivalent metallic ions
  • It chelates metals like zinc, manganese, iron, and lead deposits in the bone which are then mobilized, chelated, and excreted through the kidneys


  • Lead poisoning
  • Zinc, manganese, and iron poisoning
  • Sbdium edetate in severe hypercalcemia

Adverse Effects:

  • Nephrotoxicity
  • Fatigue
  • Fever
  • Myalgia
  • Dermatitis

Question 10. Thiamin deficiency

  • Deficiency of Thiamine results in beri beri


  • Loss of appetite
  • Weakness
  • Constipation
  • Nausea
  • Mental depression
  • Peripheral neuropathy
  • Irritability
  • Numbness in the legs


1. Wet Beri Beri

  • Characterized by edema of legs, face, trunk, and serous cavities

2. Dry beri beri

  • Associated with neurological manifestations

3. Infantile Beri Beri

  • Seen in infants

Question 11. Ascorbic add deficiency

Deficiency Manifestations:

  • A deficiency of vitamin C leads to scurvy

Features of Scurvy:

  • Spongy and sore gums
  • Loose teeth
  • Anemia
  • Swollen joints
  • Fragile blood vessels
  • Decreased immunocompetence
  • Delayed wound healing
  • Impaired hormonal functions of the adrenal cortex and gonads
  • Hemorrhage
  • Osteoporosis

Question 12. Name two fat-soluble vitamins arid mention two uses of them

Miscellaneous Two Fat Soluble Vitamins And Mention Two Uses Of Them

Question 13. What procedure will be adapted so that tenants do not result from your treatment? How will you treat a case of tetanus?

Prevention of Tetanus:

  • Pregnant women can be administered two tetanus toxoid injections, 1 ml IM in the third trimester of pregnancy
  • Immunized individuals can be given booster doses to achieve active immunity
  • Tetanus antitoxin can be used for penetrating wounds of the head and face and wounds of devitalized tissues

Treatment of Tetanus:

1. General management

  • Admission and isolation in a quiet room, to avoid minor stimuli which precipitate spasms
  • Wound care includes drainage of pus, excision of necrosed tissue, removal of foreign body, and proper dressing
  • Inj. Tetanus toxoid 0.5 ml IM
    • Antitetanus serum, ATS – 50000 units IV or
    • Human Antitetanus globulin – 3000-4000 units
      • Inj. crystalline penicillin 10 lakh units every 6 hourly for 7-10 days

2. Specific management

  • Mild cases
    • Sedatives- combination of chlorpromazine, phe- nobarbitone and diazepam
  • Seriously ill cases
    • Use of nasogastric tube for feeding purposes and for administration of drugs
  • Dangerously ill cases
    • Sedatives
    • Muscle relaxants
    • Positive pressure ventilation
    • Adequate nutrition
    • Care of urinary bladder, bowel
    • Frequent change of position to avoid bed sores

Question 14. Uses of astringents in dental practice.

  • Astringents are substances that precipitate superficial proteins without penetrating the cells when applied to the skin or mucous membrane
  • They form a protective coating and harden the surface


  • Check minor hemorrhages
  • Arrest capillary oozing
  • Promote clotting
  • Precipitate protein on the bleeding surfaces.


  • As obtundents
  • As styptics
  • As mummifying agent
  • Mouthwashes
  • Paints
  • Lotion and denitrifies in aphthous ulcers, stomatitis, and gingivitis


  1. Vegetable astringent- Tannic acid
  2. Metallic or mineral astringent- Alum, salts of zinc, copper, iron, aluminum, and silver
  3. Miscellaneous- alcohol

Question 15. Vitamin D.

  • It is a fat-soluble vitamin

Miscellaneous Vitamin D

Adverse Effects: Hypervitaminosis D

Characterized by:

  • Generalized decalcification of the bones
  • Hypercalcaemia
  • Hyperphosphataemia
  • Weakness, drowsiness
  • Nausea, abdominal pain
  • Thirst
  • Renal stones
  • Hypertension


  • Prophylaxis
  • Nutritional rickets and osteomalacia
  • Vitamin D-resistant rickets
  • Vitamin D-dependent rickets
  • Senile osteoporosis
  • Hypoparathyroidism

Miscellaneous Short Question And Answers

Question 1. Vitamin C / Ascorbic acid


  • Citrus fruits- Gooseberry, guava
  • Green vegetables
  • Tomatoes and potatoes


1. Role in collagen formation

  • It acts as a coenzyme in the hydroxylation of proline and lysine
  • These are required to convert procollagen to collagen

2. It is required for bone formation

3. Role in metabolism

  • Iron metabolism
    • It enhances iron absorption
    • Helps in the formation of ferritin
    • Helps in the mobilization of iron from ferritin
  • Hemoglobin metabolism
    • It is used to reconvert methemoglobin to hemoglobin
    • Required for degradation of hemoglobin to bile pigments
  • Tryptophan metabolism
    • Essential for hydroxylation of. Tryptophan to hydroxytryptophan
  • Tyrosine metabolism
    • Required for oxidation of p-hydroxy phenyl py- rugate to homogenetic acid
  • Folic acid metabolism
    • Required for the formation of tetrahydrofolate, the active form of folic acid

4. Hormonal functions

  • Peptides are derived from glycine
  • Vitamin C is required for the hydroxylation of glycine
  • It is required for the synthesis of steroids hormones

5. It is a strong antioxidant

6. It enhances the synthesis of immunoglobulin

7. Preventive functions

  • It prevents the risk of
    • Cataract
    • Cancer
    • Coronary heart diseases

Question 2. Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6 is also known as pyridoxine


  • The Coenzyme of Pyridoxine, Pyridoxal phosphate, PLP, is attached to the delta amino group of lysine
  • It participates in reactions like
    • Transamination
    • Decarboxylation
    • Deamination
    • Transsulfuration
  • Synthetic functions
    • Synthesis of niacin Coenzymes from tryptophan
    • Synthesis of serine from glycine
  • Glycogen phosphorylase contains PLP
  • It is needed for the intestinal absorption of amino acids
  • It prevents urinary stone formation


  • Prophylaxis in the treatment of pyridoxine deficiency,
  • INH-induced peripheral neuritis and
  • Convulsions in infants

Question 3. Vitamin B12

  • It is cyanocobalamine

Coenzyme Forms:

  • 5′- Deoxyadenosyl cobalamin
  • Methylcobalamin


1. Synthesis of methionine from homocysteine

  • Vitamin B12 is used as Methylcobalamin in this reaction

2. Isomerization of methylmalonic CoA to succinyl CoA

  • It occurs in the presence of vitamin B12 Coenzyme, deoxyadenosine cobalamin

Dietary Requirements:

  • Adults- 3 micrograms/day
  • Children- 0.5-1.5 micrograms/day
  • During pregnancy and lactation- 4 micrograms/day

Deficiency Symptoms:

  • A deficiency of vitamin B12 leads to

1. Pernicious anemia

  • Characterized by low hemoglobin levels, decreased number of erythrocytes, and neurological manifestations

2. Neuronal degeneration

3. Demyelination of the nervous system

Question 4. The posterior pituitary extract is given by IV drip before delivery only

  • The posterior pituitary extract increases the force and the frequency of uterine contractions
  • Induces labor
  • Controls postpartum hemorrhage
  • Thus it is given before delivery

Question 5. Tannic acid

  • Tannic acid is a vegetable astringent obtained from many plants
  • It is found in tea, catechu, nutmeg, areca nut, etc
  • They denature the proteins forming protein tannate


  • Bleeding gums- as glycerine
  • Bleeding piles – as a tannic acid suppository
  • Alkaloidal poisoning- Precipitates ingested alkaloids as tannates

Question 6. Clove oil

  • Clove, oil is a type of obtundent
  • It diminishes sensitivity


  • To make excavation painless


  • It paralyzes the sensory nerves
  • Causes initial irritation followed by numbness


  • It may stain the dentin yellow

Question 7. Counter irritants

  • Certain irritants produce a remote effect that tends to relieve pain and inflammation in deeper organs
  • These are called counterirritants
  • When counter-irritants are applied to the area of skin supplied by nerves from the same segment as the deeper organs from which impulses are produced, the cutaneous impulses obscure the deeper situations
  • They are generally massaged to relieve
    • Headache
    • Muscular pain
    • Joint pain
    • Pleural or peritoneal pain
    • Colics
  • Drugs commonly used are
    • Turpentine oil
    • Clove oil
    • Eucalyptus oil
    • Mustard seeds
    • Capsicum
    • Methyl salicylate
    • Alcohol

Examples: Vicks vaporub, amruthanjan, iodex.

Question 8. Name four chelating agents.

Miscellaneous Four Chelating Agents

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