Oral Microbiology Short And Long Essay Question And Answers

Oral Microbiology Important Notes

1. Dental plaque consists of

  • Bacteria
  • Epithelial cells
  • Macrophage
  • Leucocytes

2. Factors producing dental caries

  • Host – structure of tooth and nature of saliva
  • Diet – carbohydrate rich diet
  • Time – repeated ingestion of carbohydrate at short interval
  • Microbial flora – Mainly Streptococcus mutans

Oral Microbiology Long Essays

Question 1. Discuss normal oral flora. What is the pathogenesis of dental plaque formation?

Normal Oral Flora:

  • The normal resident oral flora occupies available colonization sites which makes it more difficult for other micro-organisms to become established.
  • At birth, the oral cavity is usually sterile
  • But within a few hours first streptococci gets established followed by other species.
  • Later the oral cavity becomes a mixture of bacteria, fungi, protozoan, and viruses.
  • With the eruption of teeth, these organisms get colonized.
  • Normal oral flora contains the following micro-organisms

Oral Microbiology Normal Oral Flora contains following micro organism

Dental Plaque Formation:

  • Initially, oral bacteria, pellicle, and dietary sucrose are required
  • Pellicle contains salivary glycoprotein while bacteria produce adhesives like glucan from dietary sucrose
  • The first pellicle through its glycoprotein gets adsorbed to the enamel surface and forms a membranous film

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  • Next the glucan produced by the bacteria helps in binding the bacteria to the pellicle
  • As this process continues more and more oral bacteria are adsorbed on the tooth surface
  • As a result of it, layer called dental plaque is formed
  • This later gets calcified to form calculus

Oral Microbiology Short Essays

Question 1. Dental plaque

Dental plaque is a soft non mineralised deposit of bacteria present on the tooth surface and other hard surfaces of the oral cavity

Dental plaque Classification:

Oral Microbiology Dental Plaque Classification

Dental plaque  Composition:

  • Dental plaque consists of
    • Bacteria
    • Epithelial cells
    • Macrophages
    • Leucocytes

Dental plaque  Effects:

  • Calculus formation
  • Dental caries
  • Periodontal diseases

Question 2. Dental caries

  • Dental caries is an infectious, microbiologic disease of the teeth that results in localized dissolution and destruction of the calcified tissues of the teeth.
  • It leads to the weakening of tooth structure, cavity formation, and, eventual loss of tooth

Dental caries Etiology:

  • Four factors interact to produce caries
  • They are as follows:

Oral Microbiology Dental Caries Etiology

Prevention of Dental Caries:

Dental caries can be prevented by

  • Maintenance of good oral hygiene
    • By use of antimicrobials
    • Proper brushing
    • Flossing
    • By scaling at least once in 6 months
  • Control of dietary carbohydrate intake
  • Incorporating fluoride in drinking water
    • This increases resistance to dental caries.

Question 3. Periodontal infection

  • Periodontal infections include diseases of the gingiva, periodontal ligament, cementum, and alveolar bone
  • Initially, the organisms affect the gingiva causing gingivitis
  • Later it progresses to deeper tissues leading to progressive tooth loss

Periodontal infection Etiology:

  • Periodontal microflora, intrinsic factors, and extrinsic factors cause periodontal diseases

Oral Microbiology Periodontal Infection Etiology

Periodontal Diseases:

Oral Microbiology Periodontal Diseases


Oral Microbiology Short Question And Answers

Question 1. Microbiology or bacteria causing dental caries

Bacteria that cause dental caries are

Oral Microbiology Bacteria Causing Dental Caries

Question 2. Normal flora of the respiratory tract

Oral Microbiology Normal flora of respiratory tract

Question 3. Name micro-organisms causing a periapical abscess

Micro-organisms causing periapical abscesses are:

Oral Microbiology Micro-Organisms causing periapical abscess

Question 4. Oral antiseptics

  • Oral antiseptics re used to keep the commensal bacterial flora of the oral cavity clean
  • Some of them act as a deodorant

Oral antiseptics Example:

  • Thymol
  • Menthol
  • Eugenol
  • Benzoic acid
  • Boric acid
  • Calcium
  • Magnesium peroxide.

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