Oral Medicine Tumours Short Essays

Oral Medicine Tumours Short Essays

Question 1. Hemangioma



  • They are relatively common benign proliferative lesions of vascular tissue origin

Hemangioma  Clinical Features:

  • Age and sex: Early-age females are commonly affected
  • Site: Intraorally over
    • Tongue
    • Lip
    • Buccal mucosa
    • Palate
    • Within jawbones
    • Within salivary gland
  • Hemangioma Presentation
    • They are usually raised, multinodular, red or purple lesions
    • When a hemangioma is compressed with the help of a slide it blanches
    • Once the pressure is released, its reddish appearance returns due to the refilling of the tumor cells with blood
    • It is soft and compressible
    • The size of the lesion varies from time to time
    • Port wine stain is often seen over the face
    •  Jawbones involvement
      • Mandible is more commonly affected
      • It produces slow enlarging, painful, expansile jaw swelling
      • It may cause erosion of the bone
      • Loosening of the teeth
      • Anesthesia or paraesthesia of the skin and oral mucosa

Hemangioma  Differential Diagnosis:

  • Pyogenic granuloma
  • Mucoceles
  • Kaposi’s sarcoma
  • Salivary gland neoplasm

Read And Learn More: Oral Medicine Question and Answers

Hemangioma  Management:

  • Local excision for smaller lesions
  • Larger lesions are treated by excision after pretreat¬ment of the lesion with sclerosing agents to reduce the size of the lesion

Question 2. AOT


AOT Origin: reduced enamel epithelium

AOT Clinical Features:

  • Age: Young age
  • Sex: Female
  • Site: Maxillary anterior region

AOT Presentation:

  • Slow enlarging, small, bony hard swelling
  • Elevation of the upper lip
  • Displacement of teeth
  • Expansion of cortical plates
  • Asymptomatic
  • Nodular swelling over gingiva

AOT Radiographic Features:

  • Well-defined, unilocular, radiolucent area
  • Interior small radiopaque foci

AOT Treatment:

Surgical enucleation

Question 3. Ossifying fibroma


Ossifying fibroma

Oral Medicine Tumours Ossifying fibroma

Question 4. Malignant melanoma.


Malignant melanoma

  • It is a malignant neoplasm arising from melanocytes of the skin and mucous membrane

Malignant melanoma Clinical Features:

  • Age and sex: It affects older aged people
  • Sites:
    • Hardpalte
    • Maxillary alveolar ridge
    • Less frequently,
      • Lower jaw
      • The floor of the mouth
      • Tongue
      • Buccal mucosa
      • Parotid gland

Malignant melanoma Presentation

  • It initiates as a macular pigmented lesion
  • Some of them appear as inflamed area
  • The pigmented lesions are dark brown or bluish-black
  • Initially, they are rapidly growing, large painful dif¬fuse mass
  • Surface ulceration may occur It may be secondarily infected
  • It spreads rapidly and destroys the involved bone
  • It leads to the loosening and exfoliation of teeth
  • There may be a metastasis of the tumor cells to distant sites.

Oral Medicine Tumours

Malignant melanoma Management:

Radical surgery with prophylactic neck dissection is done

Question 5. Kaposi sarcoma.


Kaposi sarcoma

  • It is a malignant neoplasm arising from the endothelial cells of the blood capillaries

Kaposi sarcoma Etiology:

  • Genetic predisposition
  • HIV
  • Immunosuppression
  • Environmental factors

Kaposi sarcoma Clinical Features:

  • Sites: Maxillary gingival, tongue
  • Clinical stages:

1. Patch stage:

  • It is the initial stage of the disease and during this, a pink, red, or purple macule appears over the oral mucosa

2. Plaque stage:

  • It continues into the plaque stage with time and during this stage, the lesion appears as a large, raised plaque

3. Nodular stage:

  • It is the last stage of the disease
  • It is characterized by the occurrence of multiple nodular lesions on the skin or the mucosa

Kaposi sarcoma Differential Diagnosis:

  • Pyogenic granuloma
  • Hemangioma
  • Angiosarcoma

Kaposi sarcoma Management:

  • Radiotherapy
  • Chemotherapy.

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