## NCERT Notes For Class 6 Maths Chapter 2 Whole Numbers

## Whole Numbers Introduction

As we know, we use 1, 2, 3, 4,… when we begin to count. They come naturally when Westart is counting. Hence, Mathematically call the counting numbers Natural numbers.

**Predecessor And Successor**

Given any natural number, you can add 1 to that number and get the next number i.e. you get its successor.

The successor of 16 is 16 + 1 = 17, that of 19 is 19 +1 = 20 and so on.

The number 16 comes before 17, we say that the predecessor of 17 is 17-1=16, the predecessor of 20 is 20 – 1 = 19, and so on.

The number 3 has a predecessor and a successor. What about 2? The successor is 3 and the predecessor is 1. Does 1 have both a successor and a predecessor?

We can count the number of children in our school; we can also count the number of people in a city; we can count the number of people in India. The number of people in India.

the number of people in the whole world can also be counted. We may not be able to count the number of stars in the sky or the number of hair on our head but if we are able, there would be a number for them also.

We can then add one more to such a number and get a larger number. In that case, we can even write the number of hair on two heads taken together.

It is now perhaps obvious that there is no largest number. Apart from these questions shared above, there are many others that can come to our mind when we work with natural numbers.

You can think of a few such questions and discuss them with your friends. You may not clearly know the answers to many of them!

## NCERT Notes For Class 6 Maths Whole Numbers

We have seen that the number 1 has no predecessor in natural numbers. To the

collection of natural numbers we add zero as the predecessor for 1.

The natural numbers along with zero form the collection of whole numbers.

In your previous classes, you have learnt to perform all the basic operations like addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of numbers.

You also know how to apply them to problems. Let us try them on a number line. Before we proceed, let us find out what a number line is!

## NCERT Notes For Class 6 Maths The Number Line

Draw a line. Mark a point on it. Label it 0. Mark a second point to the right of 0. Label it 1.

The distance between these points labelled as 0 and 1 is called unit distance.

On this line, mark a point to the right of 1 and at a unit distance from 1 and label it 2. In this way go on labelling points at unit distances as 3, 4, 5,… on the line. You can go to any whole number on the right in this manner.

This is a number line for all numbers.

What is the distance between the points 2 and 4? Certainly, it is 2 units. Can you tell the distance between the points 2 and 6, between 2 and 7?

On the number line, you will see that the number 7 is on the right of 4. his number 7 is greater than 4, i.e. 7 > 4. The number 8 lies on the right of 6 and 8 > 6.

These observations help us to say that, out of any two whole

numbers, the number on the right of the other number is the greater number.

We can also say that the whole number on the left is the smaller number.

For example, 4 < 9; 4 is on the left of 9. Similarly, 12 > 5; 12 is to the

right of 5.

What can you say about 10 and 20?

Mark 30, 12, and 18 on the number line. Which number is at the farthest left? Can you say which number from 1005 and 9756 would be on the right relative to the other number?

Place the successor of 12 and the predecessor of 7 on the number line.

**Addition on the number line**

The addition of whole numbers can be shown on the number line. Let us see the addition of 3 and 4.

Start from 3. Since we add 4 to this number we make 4 jumps to the right; from 3 to 4, 4 to 5, 5 to 6 and 6 to 7 as shown above. The tip of the last arrow in the fourth jump is at 7.

The sum of 3 and 4 is 7, i.e. 3 + 4 = 7.

**Subtraction on the number line**

The subtraction of two whole numbers can also be shown on the number line.

Let us find 7-5.

Start from 7. Since 5 is being subtracted, so move towards left with 1 jump of 1 unit. Make 5 such jumps. We reach the point 2. We get 7- 5 = 2.

**Multiplication on the number line**

We now see the multiplication of whole numbers on the number line.

Let us find 4 x 3.

Start from 0, move 3 units at a time to the right, and make such 4 moves. Where do you reach? You will reach 12. So, we say, 3 x 4 = 12.