Infectious Diseases Long Essays

Infectious Diseases Long Essays

Question 1. What is the differential diagnosis of ulcers over the penis? How do you treat syphilis?


Differential Diagnosis of Ulcers Over Penis:

  • Chancre
  • Chancroid
  • lymphogranuloma venereum
  • Genital herpes
  • Neoplasm


  • It is a sexually transmitted disease

Syphilis Clinical Features:

  1. Primary syphilis
    • Incubation period- about 21 days
    • Chancre develops
    • It is a solitary, painless, indurated, non-tendered, ulcerated, or eroded lesion
    • Initial,ly it was a dull red macule
    • Later it becomes ulcerated
    • Regional lymphadenopathy
  2. Secondary syphilis
    • Appears about 6-8 weeks
    • Skin lesions appear as macules, papules, fol-locules, or, papulosquamous patches
    • Circinate lesions develop on the face
    • Headache
    • Fever, anorexia
    • Joint and muscle pain
    • Laryngitis, pharyngitis
    • Generalised lymphadenopathy
    • Lesions develop over the mucocutaneous junction
  3. Tertiary syphilis
    • Develops about 5-10 years after primary infection
    • Affects the skin, central nervous system, CVS, mucous membrane
    • Lesions are called gumma
    • It is localized, chronic granulomatous lesion with a nodular or ulcerated surface
    • Causes generalized paresis, dementia, and strokes
    • Bone lesions cause osteomyelitis and destruction of joints

Syphilis Treatment:

Infectious Diseases Differntial Diagnosis Of Ulcers Over Penis Treatment

Question 2. Describe clinical features, diagnosis, complications, and management of typhoid fever.
Discuss the etiology, clinical features, complications, and management of enteric fever.


Typhoid Or Enteric Fever:

  • It is an acute systemic illness


  • Salmonella typhi
  • Salmonella paratyphi

Enteric Fever Clinical Features:

  • Incubation period- 10-14 days
  1. First 5-7 days
    • High-grade, remittent fever with chills
    • Headache
    • Aches
    • Malaise
    • Constipation
    • Leucopenia
    • Dry cough
    • Epistaxis
    • Relative bradycardia
  2. Between 1st and 2nd week
    • Rose spots develop over the trunk as small macules, red in color, and blanch on pressure
    • Splenomegaly
    • Bronchitis
    • Abdominal pain
    • Abdominal distension
    • Diarrhea
  3. After 2nd week
    • Confusion
    • Delirium
    • Toxaemia
    • Coma

Read And Learn More: General Medicine Question and Answers

Enteric Fever Diagnosis:

Infectious Diseases Typhoid Fever Diagnosis

Enteric Fever Complications:

  1. Intestinal complications
    • Hemorrhage
    • Paralytic ileus
    • Perforation
    • Peritonitis
  2. Extraintestinal complication
    • Meningitis
    • Cholecystitis
    • Pneumonia
    • Myocarditis
    • Bone and joint infection
    • Encephalopathy
    • Granulomatous hepatitis
    • Nephritis

Enteric Fever Management

Infectious Diseases Thyroid Fever Management

Question 3. Describe the etiology, pathology, clinical features, and management of cervical TB lymphadenitis.


Tuberculous Lymphadenitis:

  • It is defined as achronic specific granulomatous inflammation with caseation necrosis of the lymph node


  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex which includes M. tuberculosis, M. bovis, M. africanum, M. canetti, and M.caprae


  • Pathological stages of the disease are:
  1. Stage 1- lymphoid hyperplasia
    • Formation of tubercles and granulomas occurs without cassation necrosis
  2. Stages 2 and 3
    • Caseation necrosis in the affected lymph nodes occurs
    • It is followed by the destruction of capsules of lymph nodes
    • Periadenitis
  3. Stage 4
    • There is a rupture of caseous material into the surrounding soft tissue
    • Formation of abscess cavity

Tuberculous Lymphadenitis Clinical Features:

  • Persistent, painless swelling of the lymph nodes
  • Release of discharge of fluid
  • Fever
  • Weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Night sweats

tuberculous LymphadenitisManagement:

  1. Anti-tubercular therapy
    • Isoniazid, Rifampicin, Pyrazinamide, and Ethambutol are given for 2 months
    • Followed by Isoniazid and Rifampicin for the next 4 months
  2. DOTS therapy
  3. Surgery- indicated in
    • Persistent fluctuant lesions
    • Failure with chemotherapy
    • Symptomatic relief

Question 4. Describe the etiology, clinical features, and management of intestinal amoebiasis.


Intestinal amoebiasis

Caused by entamoeba histolytic

  • E. histolytica can cause two types of pathological lesions as follows

1. Primary (or) Intestinal Amoebiasis:

Infectious Diseases Primary or intestinal amoebiasis

  • This condition is called amoebic dysentery.
  • These ulcers may be generalized (or) may be localized to the ileocaecal (or) sigmoidorectal region.
  • Occasionally ulcers may involve deeper tissues and cause perforation (or) peritonitis.
  • Erosion of blood vessels may lead to bleeding.
  • The superficial lesions generally heal without scarring.
  • Deep ulcers form scars leading to strictures, partial obstruction, and thickening of the gut wall.

2. Extra-intestinal amoebiasis (or) secondary (or) metastatic lesions.

  • Amoebic liver abscess:

Infectious Diseases Primary or intestinal amoebiasis

Question 5. Diphtheria-etiology, Clinical FeatuManagementtntA



  • It is caused by Corynebacterium diphtheria

Diphtheria-etiology Clinical Features:

  • It is insidious at the onset
  • Moderate grade fever
  • Tachycardia
  • Sore throat
  • Formation of greyish-greenish pseudomembrane on the tonsils
  • Swollen neck- Bull neck
  • Tender lymphadenopathy
  • Nasal infection
  • Hoarseness of voice
  • Cough
  • Respiratory obstruction
  • Acute circulatory failure
  • Myocarditis
  • Nerve palsies
  • Dysphagia
  • Dysphonia
  • Paraesthesia in the limbs

Diphtheria-Etiology Management:

  1. Antitoxin diphtheric serum (ADS)
    • The dose varies from 20,000 to 1,00,000 units depending on the duration and severity of the disease
    • In mild cases, a lesser dose may be used
  2. Antibiotics
    • Penicillin G-6,00,000 units every 12 hourly intravenously or
    • Amoxycillin 500 mg 8 hourly for 7-10 days
    • Patient allergic to penicillin
      • Erythromycin- 500 mg 6 hoourly or
      • Azithromycin 500 mg daily or
      • Rifampicin 600 mg daily
  3. Tracheostomy

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