Immune Response Short Essay Question And Answers

Immune Response Short Essays

Question 1. Interferon.


Interferon was originally identified as an antiviral agent but now it is classified as a more general regulatory peptide belonging to cytokines.

Interferon Types:

Immune Response Interferon Types

Interferon Function:

1. It is an antiviral agent.

  • Produces antiviral effects by induction of resistance to infections.

2. Antimicrobial effect.

  • Induces resistance to intracellular parasitic infections.

3. Cellular effects.

  • Inhibits cell growth and proliferation.
  • Inhibits DNA and Protein synthesis.
  • Increases expression of MHC antigens.

Read And Learn More: Microbiology Question and Answers

4. Immunoregulatory effects.

  • Enhances the cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells and T cells.
  • Activates macrophage activity.
  • Modulates antibody formation.
  • Activates suppressor T cells.

Question 2. Cytokines.


  • Cytokines are peptide mediators or intercellular messengers.
  • They are biologically active, hormone-like substances.

Cytokines Functions:

  • Regulates immunological, inflammatory, and reparative host responses.
  • They have multiple effects on the growth and differentiation of various cells.
  • They have multiple effects on the growth and differentiation of various cells.
  • They act locally near the producing cells called paracrine effects.
  • They produce an autocrine effect by acting directly on the cells producing them.
  • Cytokines and their agonists and antagonists are used in the management of inflammatory, infectious, autoimmune, and neoplastic conditions.

Cytokines Sources:

  • Cytokines are produced by.
  • Lymphocytes
  • Macrophages
  • Platelets
  • Fibroblasts.

Cytokines Regulation:

  • Cytokines production is regulated by.

1. Exogenous stimuli.

  • Antigens
  • Mitogens

2. Endogenous factors.

  • Neuroendocrine hormonal peptides.

3. Products of lipoxygenase and cycloxygenase pathways.

Cytokines Regulation Examples:

  • Important cytokines are:
    • Interleukins.
    • Colony stimulating factors.
    • Tumor necrosis factor.
    • Interferons.
    • Transforming growth factor – p
    • Leukemia inhibitory factor.

Immune Response The immune system

Immune Response Short Question And Answers

Question 1. Lymphokines.


Lymphokines are biologically active substances released by activated T – T-lymphocytes.

Lymphokines Functions:

  • Responsible for cell-mediated immunity (CMI)
  • Macrophages under the effect of lymphokines destroy micro-organisms involved in CMI.
  • Participate in many functions of T-cells.
  • Transmit various growth, differentiation, and behavior-neural signals between the cells of the immune system.

Lymphokines Examples:

  1. Lymphokines affecting lymphocytes
  2. Lymphokines affecting macrophages
  3. Lymphokines affecting granulocytes
  4. Lymphokines affecting cultured cells

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