Hepatitis Viruses Virology Short And Long Essay Question And Answers

Hepatitis Viruses Important Notes

1. Hepatitis virus

Hepatitis Viruses - Hepatitis Virus

Hepatitis Viruses Long Essays

Question 1. Describe the morphology, spread, prevention, and lab diagnosis of hepatitis B virus

Hepatitis-B Virus:

It belongs to the Hepadnaviridae family

Hepatitis-B Morphology:

  • It is a complex structure
  • Size: 42 nm
  • It is a double-shelled particle

Hepatitis-B Structure:

1. Outer surface or envelope

  • It contains hepatitis B surface antigen, HBsAg.
  • It encloses the inner core

Read And Learn More: Microbiology Question and Answers

2. Core

  • It is an Icosahedral nucleocapsid
  • Size: 27 nm
  • Contains hepatitis B core antigen, HBcAg

3. Genome

  • It is present inside the core
  • It is double-stranded DNA and DNA polymerase
  • Sera of hepatitis B patients shows three types of particles microscopically.

Hepatitis Viruses - Hepatitis B Virus

Antigenic Structure:

Hepatitis Viruses Hepatitis B Virus Antigenic Structure

Hepatitis Viruses Structure of Hepatitis B Virus


There are three modes of transmission

Hepatitis Viruses - Three modes of transmission


1. General preventive measures

  • It includes:
    • Health education
    • Improvement of personal hygiene
    • Sterilization measures
    • Screening for HBsAg and HBeAg in blood donors
    • Avoiding the use of unsterile needles, syringes or other materials

2. Immunization

Hepatitis Viruses - Hepatitis B Viruses Immunization

Hepatitis-B Laboratory Diagnosis:

Hepatitis Viruses - Hepatitis B Viruses Laboratory Diagnosis

  • Dark urine and yellow coloration of sclera due to jaundice occurs
  • Blood shows lymphocytosis
  • Prolonged prothrombin time occurs

Question 2. Describe the pathogenicity and laboratory diagnosis of the hepatitis B virus.

Pathogenicity of Hepatitis B Virus:

  • Pathogenesis of hepatitis appears to be immune-mediated
  • HBV causes serum hepatitis
  • Infection spreads by
    • Blood transfusions
    • Serum inoculation
    • Sharing of syringes and needles
    • Sharing of razors
    • Tattooing
    • Acupuncture
    • Sexual intercourse
  • It is more common in drug addicts, prostitutes and homosexuals
  • Virus is highly infectious and even minute quantity of carrier sera can transmit the infection

Hepatitis B Virus Clinical Features:

  • Incubation period- 2-6 months
  • Onset – Slow, insidious, severe
  • Fever is not prominent
  • The course of acute HBV infection is divided into three phases:

Hepatitis Viruses Actue HBV infection divided

  • Extrahepatic complications include
    • Urticaria
    • Arthralgia
    • Polyarteritis nodosa
    • Glomerulonephritis
    • The appearance of circulating immune complexes obtaining viral surface antigen
  • Some patients progress to chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis

Hepatitis Viruses Short Essays

Question 1. Differentiate between hepatitis A and hepatitis B.

Hepatitis Viruses - Differentiate between hepatitis A and hepatitis B

Hepatitis Viruses Short Question And Answers

Question 1. Danes particles.

  • Under the electron microscope, sera from type B hepatitis patients show three types of particles
  • The third type of particle is a double-walled spherical structure
  • It is 42 nm in diameter
  • It is the complete hepatitis B virus
  • It was first described by Danes in 1970
  • Hence it is known as the Danes particle

Question 2. Quantitative rapid test for hepatitis B antigen

The Serological tests used for hepatitis B antigens are

  • DNA hybridization
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
    • They detect HBV DNA
    • They are highly sensitive
    • They are quantitative tests

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