Diseases Of The Oral Cavity Question And Answers

Diseases Of The Oral Cavity Important Notes

  1. Stomatitis
    • It describes inflammation of the lining of the mouth
    • Stomatitis TypesDiseases Of The Oral Cavity Stomatitis Types
  2. Cancrumoris
    • Progression of lesion
      • Area of edema and induration on lip
      • Area becomes ischaemic and necrotic
      • Spreads over larger areas of lip, cheeks, and jaws and destroy them
  3. Ulcers of tongueDiseases Of The Oral Cavity Ulcers Of Tongue
  4. Carcinoma of tongue
    • Sites
      • Anierior or 2/ 3rd – 50 %
      • Posterior 1 /3rd – 20 %
      • Dorsum -10 %
      • Tip – 10%
      • Undersurface- 10%
    • Predisposing factor
      • Pipe smoking
      • Syphilis
      • Chronic superficial glossitis
      • Alcohol
      • Chronic irritation
    • Carcinoma Of Tongue Types
      • An ulcer
      • A warty growth
      • An indurated plaque or mass
      • A fissure
    • Carcinoma Of Tongue Feature
      • Presents as painless irregular ulcer
        • Edges – raised and everted
        • Floor – covered by yellowish-grey slough
        • Base – indurated
      • Repealed spitting
      • Excessive salivation
      • Fetor oris
      • Ankyloglossia
      • Hoarseness of voice and dysphagia
      • Regional lymphadenopathy
      • Later blood stained saliva occurs
      • Pain occurs due to involvement of the lingual nerve
    • Carcinoma Of Tongue Treatment
      • Surgery
      • Radiotherapy
      • Block dissection in case of cervical Jymphadenopathy
  5. Carcinoma of lip
    • In 90% cases, it involves the lower lip
    • Related to exposure to sunlight
    • Males are commonly affected
    • Present as flat nodule or indurated crack at skin-vermillion junction
  6. Etiology of carcinoma of cheek
    • Sepsis
    • Smoking
    • Spirit
    • Sharp tooth
    • Syphilis
    • Spices
  7. Causes of macroglossia
    • Lymphangioma
    • Haemangioma
    • Neurofibroma
    • Muscular macroglossia
    • Primary mesodermal amyloidosis
    • Infiltrating carcinoma

Read And Learn More: General Surgery Question and Answers

Diseases Of The Oral Cavity Long Essays

Question 1. Enumerate and write tumours of cheek and floor of the mouth
Answer:

Tumours of cheek and floor of the mouth

Diseases Of The Oral Cavity Tumours Of Cheek And Floor Of The Mouth

Question 2. Discuss the etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and management of carcinoma of tongue.
Answer:

Carcinoma Of Tongue: Carcinoma of tongue is a common lesion

Carcinoma Of Tongue Etiology:

  • Premalignant conditions like
    • Leukoplakia
    • Erythroplakia
  • Six
    • Smoking
    • Syphilis
    • Spices
    • Spirit
    • Sepsis.
    • Sharp tooth

Carcinoma of Tongue Clinical Features

  • Age- 50 years of age
  • Sex- males are commonly affected
  • Site- common in anterior 2/3rd of tongue and edges
  • Excessive salivation
  • Painless lump or ulcer develops on the surface of tongue
  • Foetor oris
  • Ankyloglossia
  • Pain due to involvement of nerves
  • Hoarseness of voice and dysphagia- if carcinoma involves posterior 1/3rd of tongue
  • Enlarged cervical lymph nodes

Carcinoma of Tongue Diagnosis:

  • Edge biopsy- done under general anaesthesia
  • FNAC- of lymph nodes
  • Indirect and direct laryngoscopy- to examine posterior third growth
  • CT scan to detect extension of carcinoma
  • Chest radiograph- to detect bronchopneumonia

Carcinoma of Tongue Management

  • Surgery
    • Wide incision
      • Indicated if the growth is less than 1 cm in diameter
      • Wide incision with 1 cm margin and depth of 1 cm is used
    • Partial glossectomy
      • Indicated when lesion is less than 2 cm and confined to the lateral border of the tongue
      • About one-third of the tongue is removed
    • Hemiglossectomy
      • Indicated when radiotherapy fails
      • Removal of half of the anterior 2/3rd of the tongue is done
    • Total glossectomy
      • Indicated in very extensive growth involving entire tongue
      • Combined with radiotherapy
    • Commando operation
      • Indicated when carcinoma of tongue is fixed to the mandible
      • It comprises of
        • Hemiglossectomy
        • Hemimandibulectomy
        • Removal of floor of the mouth
        • Radical neck dissection
  • Radiotherapy
    • Interstitial radiotherapy
      • Indicated as preliminary treatment when the growth is more than 1 cm in diameter in the anterior 2/3rd of the tongue
    • Teletherapy
      • Useful in carcinoma of posterior l/3rd of tongue when the lesion is larger than 2 cm in diameter
      • Cobalt 60 unit is used
    • When there is large tumour, both primary site and neck are irradiated to 4500 rads
  • Chemotherapy
    • Amethoprin- 50 mg/ day for 5 days can be used to reduce the size of the tumour
  • Treatment of lymph node
    • When lymph nodes are not enlarged- prophylactic block dissection of neck is done
    • When lymph nodes are enlarged- Commando’s operation is carried out
    • When enlarged lymph nodes are fixed- deep radiotherapy is done

Question 3. Describe the etiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of carcinoma of cheek.
(or)
Describe the etiology, and pathology of carcinoma of cheek and how will you manage if it involves the mandible
Answer:

Carcinoma Of Cheek: Squamous cell carcinoma is common carcinoma of cheek

Carcinoma Of Cheek Etiology:

  • Six Ss
    • Smoking
    • Spirit
    • Spices
    • Sharp tooth
    • Sepsis
    • Syphilis
  • Premalignant conditions
    • Leukoplakia
    • Erythroplakia
    • Hyperplastic candidiasis
    • Submucosal fibrosis
  • Betel nut chewing

Carcinoma of Cheek Pathology

  • There are numerous branching projections of well-differentiated epithelium
  • Each is covered by a layer of parakeratotic cells
  • Rete pegs are long and club-shaped
  • It extends into chronically inflamed connective tissue
  • Dyskeratosis and cellular pleomorphism are minimal
  • Differentiation is constantly maintained

Carcinoma of Cheek Clinical Features:

  • Development of exophytic growth- cauliflower-like growth
  • Nonhealing ulcer develops
  • Edges are everted
  • Ulcer bleeds on touch
  • Pain occurs when it is infected
  • Fixity to underlying structures
  • Trismus
  • Dysphagia
  • Halitosis
  • Enlargement of submandibular and upper deep cervical lymph nodes

Carcinoma of Cheek Diagnosis:

  • Wedge biopsy
  • OPG- to rule out an extension
  • FNAC- from lymph nodes
  • CT scan- to detect extension

Carcinoma of Cheek Treatment

  • Surgery
    • Wide excision followed by split skin graft for small superficial ulcer
    • Wide excision followed by flap reconstruction for infiltrative ulcer
  • Radiotherapy
    • External radiotherapy
      • Large total dose of 6000-8000 cGy units are given
    • Interstitial radiotherapy
      • Indicated in infiltrative small lesions
  • Advanced carcinoma of cheek
    • T3 and T4 lesions require surgery followed by postoperative radiotherapy
    • Repaired by myocutaneous flap
    • Reconstruction after surgery can be done by
      • Split skin graft
      • Deltopectoral cutaneous flap
      • Forehead flap
      • Pectoralis major myocutaneous flap
      • Cortical bone graft
      • Free flaps
  • Chemotherapy
    • Drugs used are
      • Methotrexate
      • Vincristine
      • Bleomycin
      • Adriamycin

Question 4. Discuss etiology, pathology, and clinical features of oral carcinoma and management of gingival carcinoma

Answer:

Oral Carcinoma It is the common malignant neoplasm in the head and neck region

Oral Carcinoma Etiology:

  • Tobacco smoking
  • Use of smokeless tobacco
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Malnutrition
  • 3 fitted dentures
  • Radiations
  • Viral Infections
  • Immunosuppression
  • Chronic infections
  • Occupational hazards
  • Genetic factors
  • Pre-existing oral diseases

Oral Carcinoma Pathology:

It is characterised by malignant cells

  • These cells show variable degree of differentiation
  • Cells Invade through the basement membrane into the dermis

Oral Carcinoma Arrangement:

  • Cellfi arc arranged in eoncenlrie layers called epithelial pearls
  • They contain keratin material in the center of the coll masses
  • Cells are separated by lymphocytes

Oral Carcinoma Clinical Features:

  • Associated with oral leukoplakia and erythroplakia
  • Initial symptoms are
    • Asymptomatic
    • White or rod, varigated patch
    • Nodule or fissure over oral mucosa
    • Painless
  • Later symptoms
    • Past enlarging
    • Exophytic or invasive ulcer
  • Persistent induration around periphery
  • Presence of superadded candidal infections
  • Painful lesions due to secondary infections
  • Fixation to the underlying tissues
  • Trismus
  • Invasion of the alveolar bone
  • Enlarged regional lymph nodes
  • Pathological fractures of the jaw bone

Gingival Carcinoma: Occurs due to tobacco and betel nut chewing

Gingival Carcinoma Management:

  • Surgical excision
  • Radiotherapy
  • Chemotherapy

Question 5. Discuss differential diagnosis, clinical features, and management of gum swelling.
Answer:

Gum Swelling Differential Diagnosis:

  • Chronic gingivitis
  • Gingival abscess
  • Periodontitis

Gum Swelling Clinical Features:

  • Mandibular gingiva is more affected than maxilla
  • Attached gingiva Is more affected than the free gingiva
  • Initial lesion appears as verrucous leukoplakia or as small ulceration with indurated margin
  • bony invasion occurs
  • Mobility and premature loss of teeth
  • Nonhealing extraction socket
  • Extends to the neighboring structures

Gum Swelling Management:

  • Surgical excision
  • Radiotherapy
  • Chemotherapy

Question 6. Discuss etiology of oral cancer and how to detect nearly oral cancer and describe the steps to prevent it.
Answer:

Oral Cancer It is the common malignant neoplasm in the head and neck region

Oral Cancer Etiology:

  • Tobacco smoking
    • Cigarettes
    • Bidis
    • Pipes
    • Cigars
  • Use of smokeless tobacco
    • Snuff dipping
    • Gutkha
    • Tobacco chewing
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Malnutrition
    • Vitamin deficiency
  • 3 fitted dentures
    • Broken prosthesis
    • Chronic irritation
  • Radiations
    • Actinic radiation
    • X-ray radiation
  • Viral infections
    • Herpes simplex virus
    • Human papilloma virus
    • Human immunodeficiency virus
    • Epstein burr virus
  • Immunosuppression
    • AIDS
    • Organ trasplants
  • Chronic infections
    • Candidiasis
    • Syphilis
  • Occupational hazards
  • Genetic factors
  • Pre-existing oral diseases

Oral Cancer  Investigation

  • Histopathological examination
    • Exhibit excessive proliferation of malignant cells
    • Cellular pleomorphism
    • Xuclear hyperchromatin
    • Breakdown of basement membrane
    • Intense inflammatory cell infiltration
  • Radiographic examination
    • Exhibits bone destruction
    • Shows ill-defined radiolucent areas
    • Expansion and destruction of cortical plates
    • Pathological fractures of bone
  • Exfoliative cytology
    • Used to detect the neoplastic cells as these cells has the tendency to exfoliate or shed to the surface
  • Toulidine blue test
    • Detects dysplatic changes
  • Acridine binding method
    • Detects dvsplastic cells
  • DNA probe
    • Help to determine the DNA content of tumor cells
  • Tumor markers
    • Carcinoembryonic antigen and alpha-fetoprotein are tumour markers that detect tumour

Oral Cancer  Prevention:

  • Primary prevention
    • Avoid exposure to tobacco and other deleterious habits
    • Primary prevention Methods
      • Reducing tobacco habits by making tax hike for tobacco-related products
      • Making changes in the manufacturing process of tobacco items
  • Secondary prevention
    • It includes
      • Early detection and treatment of already-developed cancer
      • Prompt management of potentially risk precancerous lesions and conditions
      • Treatment of early cancer

Question 7. Define oral ulcer. Classify ulcers. Discuss the differential diagnosis of ulcers of oral cavity and management of ulcer of the palate.
Answer:

Oral Ulcer Ulcer is a break in the continuity of the covering epithelium

Oral Ulcer Classification:

  • Clinically
    • Spreading ulcer
    • Healing ulcer
    • Callous ulcer
  • Pathological
    • Nonspecific ulcer
      • Traumatic ulcer
      • Arterial ulcer
      • Venous ulcer
      • Neurogenic uler
      • Infective ulcer
    • Specific ulcer
      • Syphilitic ulcer
      • Tubercle ulcer
    • Malignant ulcer
      • Epithelioma
      • Rodent ulcer

Oral Ulcer Differential Diagnosis:

  • Aphthous ulcer
    • It is small painful ulcer seen on the tip, undersurface, and sides of the tongue in its anterior part
    • It is small and superficial
    • Surrounded by hyperaemic zone
    • It is quite painful
    • Has yellowish border
    • It is a painful ulcer
  • Dental ulcer
    • Caused by mechanical irritation
    • Occurs at the periphery or undersurface of the tongue
    • It is elongated
    • Presents a slough at the base and is surrounded by a zone of erythema and induration
    • It is painful
  • Syphilitic ulcer
    • Called snail track ulcer
    • Occurs rarely on tongue
  • Tuberculous ulcer
    • Young adults are affected
    • Ulcers are shallow, multiple, and greyish-yellow in color
    • Seen at the tip, margin, and dorsum of tongue
  • Post pertussis ulcer
    • Occurs in children with whopping cough
    • Seen at the upper part of frenum linguae and undersurface of the tip
  • Chronic nonspecific ulcer
    • Occurs in the anterior 2/3rd of the tongue
    • It is moderately indurated
    • Painless
  • Carcinomatous ulcer
    • Occurs in elder persons
    • Site involves- anterior 2/3rd of tongue
    • It may be single or multiple
  • Herpetic ulcer
    • Common in children and young adults
    • Associated with acute neuralgic pain
    • Vesicles appears
  • Ulcers due to glossitis
    • Ulcers are superficial and multiple with hyperemia
    • Pain occurs during meals

Management of Ulcer of Palate:

  • Removal of the causative agent
  • The membrane is swabbed away with pledgets of cotton soaked with hydrogen peroxide
  • Mouth should be kept clean by repeated use of mouthwash
  • Antibiotics used if required

Question 8. Surgical anatomy of the maxillary sinus, clinical features and management of maxillary sinusitis
Answer:

Maxillary Sinus: It is pyramidal in shape with base forming the lateral nasal wall and apex at the root of the zygoma.

  • Capacity: 10-15 ml
  • Size: Height 3.5 cm; Width 2.5 cm; Anteroposterior depth 3.2 cm
  • Roof: Formed by the floor of the orbit
  • Floor: Alveolar process of maxilla
  • Anterior Wall: Facial surface of maxilla
  • Posterior Wall: Sphenomaxillary wall

Medial Wall: Lateral wall of nasal cavity

Vascular and Nerve Supply:

  • Blood Supply: Facial artery
    • Infraorbital artery
    • Greater palatine artery
  • Nerve Supply:
    • Infraorbital nerve
    • Anterior, middle, and posterior superior alveolar nerves
  • Lymphatic Drainage: Submandibular lymph nodes

Maxillary Sinusitis Clinical Features:

    • Pain on lowering your head
    • Tenderness in canine fossa
    • Redness of the area
    • Nasal discharge
    • Nose block
    • Change in voice
    • Dry cough
    • Fever
    • Malaise
    • Headache

Maxillary Sinusitis  Management:

  • Antibiotics:
  • Decongestants:
  • Analgesics
  • Anti histamines
  • Steam inhalation
  • Local heat application
  • Antral lavage
  • Irrigation of sinus through lukewarm water

Question 9. What are causes of oral malignancy? How do you manage carcinoma of cheek?
Answer:

Causes of Oral Malignancy

  • Tobacco smoking
    • Cigarettes
    • Bidis
    • Pipes
    • Cigars
  • Use of smokeless tobacco
    • Snuff dipping
    • Guikha
    • Tobacco chewing
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Malnutrition
    • Vitamin deficiency
  • 3 fitted dentures
    • Broken prosthesis
    • Chronic irritation
  • Radiations
    • Actinic radiation
    • X-ray radiation
  • Viral infections
    • Herpes simplex virus
    • Human papilloma virus
    • HIV
    • Epstein Burr virus
  • Immunosuppression
    • AIDS
    • Organ transplants
  • Chronic infection
    • Candidiasis
    • Syphilis
  • Occupational hazards
  • Genetic factors
  • Pre-existing oral diseases

Diseases Of The Oral Cavity Short Essays

Question 1. Stomatitis

Answer:

Stomatitis

  • Stomatitis used to describe any kind of inflammation of the lining of the mouth
  • It may affect the surface of the tongue

Stomatitis Causes:

  • Trauma
  • Mechanical
  • Chemical agents
  • Thermal injury
  • Radiotherapy
  • Idiopathic
  • Malnutrition

Stomatitis Types:

  • Traumatic stomatitis
    • It is covered by a thin grey glistening coagulum
    • It heals on its own
  • Aphthous stomatitis
    • May be solitary or multiple
    • Small vesicles with hyperaemic base appears
    • These are painful and tender
    • These vesicles break and form painful ulcer
  • Monilial stomatitis
    • Occurs due to Candida albicans
      • Starts as a spot on the buccal mucosa
      • Excessive salivation occurs
      • Swallowing is painful
  • Recurrent aphthous ulceration
    • Seen in adults
    • Seen on the inner sides of the lips and cheek and on the undersurface of the tongue
    • These recur in different parts of the mouth
    • Ulcers are very painful
    • There is excessive salivation
    • They heal on its own

Question 2. Erythroplakia
Answer:

Erythroplakia

  • It is red patch or plaque which cannot be characterized clinically or pathologically as any other condition and which has no apparent cause
  • It has clearly defined margins

Erythroplakia Types:

  • Homogenous erythroplakia
    • Lesion appears bright red, velvety soft areas on the oral mucosa
    • Has irregular but well-defined margins
  • Erythroplakia interspersed with patches of leukoplakia
    • There is presence of multiple, irregular erythematous areas
    • Few white leukoplakic patches occur
  • Speckled erythroplakia
    • There is the presence of soft, irregular, raised, erythematous areas in the epithelium with a granular surface
    • There are some tiny, focal white plaques distributed all over red surfaces

Erythroplakia Differential Diagnosis

  • Erosive lichen planus
  • Early squamous cell carcinoma
  • Atrophic candidiasis
  • Kaposi’s sarcoma
  • Contact allergy

Erythroplakia Treatment:

  • Deep and wide surgical excision of the lesion
  • Regular follow up

Question 3. Carcinoma of lip
Answer:

Carcinoma of lip Clinical Features:

  • Age/sex: elderly males
  • Non-healing ulcer
  • Edge is everted
  • Induration present
  • Floor is covered with slough
  • Bleeding spots present
  • Fix to underlying subcutaneous tissue
  • Cervical Lymphadenopathy

Carcinoma of lip Differential Diagnosis:

  • Keratoacanthoma
  • Ectopic salivary gland tumour
  • Pyogenic granuloma
  • Leukoplakia

Carcinoma of lip Treatment:

  • Surgery:
    • Abbe flap
    • Estlander flap
  • Radiotherapy
    • Dose: 4000-6000 cGv units

Question 4. Etiology, clinical features, and management of malignant sinusitis
Answer:

Malignant Sinusitis Etiology

  • Genetic mutation
  • Smoking
  • Long-term exposure to chemicals and irritants
  • Infections like human papillomavirus

Malignant Sinusitis Clinical features

  • Difficulty breathing through nose
  • Loss of sense of smell
  • Nose bleed
  • Discharge from nose
  • Facial pain and swelling
  • Watery eyes
  • A sore or lesion on roof of the mouth
  • Vision problems
  • Lump in neck
  • Difficulty in opening of mouth

Question 5. Write about Leukoplakia
Answer:

Leukoplakia

It is a whitish patch or plaque that cannot be characterized, clinically or pathologically, as any other disease and which is not associated with any other physical or chemical causative agent except the use of tobacco.

Leukoplakia Etiology:

  • Smoking
  • Spices
  • Spirits
  • Sharp tooth
  • Sunlight
  • Syphilis

Leukoplakia Stages

  1. Keratosis
  2. Acanthosis
  3. Dyskeratosis
  4. Speckled leukoplakia
  5. Carcinoma in situ

Leukoplakia Treatment

  • Stoppage of all habits
  • Surgical excision
  • Cryosurgery
  • Administration of vitamin A

Diseases Of The Oral Cavity Short Answers

Question 1. Angular stomatitis
Answer:

Angular stomatitis

It is superficial ulceration at the corner of the mouth

Angular stomatitis Causes:

  • Licking the corners of mouth
  • Over closure
  • Dribbling of saliva
  • Atrophic oral mucosa

Angular stomatitis Clinical Features:

  • Inflamed red-brown fissures at the comer of the mouth
  • Results in scars formation

Angular stomatitis Treatment:

  • Improve general health
  • Application of mercurochrome or Gentian violet B Vitamin supplement
  • Iron supplements

Question 2. Tongue tie
(or)
Ankyloglossia
Answer:

Tongue tie

It is a congenital developmental condition characterized by fixation of the tongue to the floor of the mouth

Tongue tie Clinical Features:

  • Males are commonly affected
  • Defective speech
  • Dental deformities
  • Difficulty in sucking
  • Difficulty in swallowing
  • Tension in anterior lingual gingiva

Tongue tie Treatment:

  1. Frenulectomy- in severe cases of ankyloglossia

Question 3. Cancrum Oris
Answer:

Cancrum Oris

It is extensive ulcerative disease of cheek mucosa occurring in malnourished children

Cancrum Oris Precipitating Factors:

  • Malnutrition
  • Major diseases like diphtheria
  • Vincent’s organism

Cancrum Oris Treatment:

  • Ryle’s tube feeding
  • Improve the nutrition
  • Antibiotics: metronidazole-400 mg TID for 7-10 days
  • Reconstructive surgery

Cancrum Oris Complications:

  • Fibrosis
  • Septicaemia
  • Restricted jaw movement
  • Death

Question 4. Lingual thyroid
Answer:

Lingual thyroid

  • It is round red swelling seen at the back of the tongue at the foramen caecum
  • It contains thyroid tissue at the foramen caecum

Lingual thyroid Complications:

  • Hemorrhage
  • Respiratory obstruction
  • Dysphagia
  • Speech impairment

Lingual thyroid Treatment: L-thyroxin replacement therapy- to reduce size of the swelling

Question 5. Ulcers of tongue
Answer:

Ulcers of tongue

  • Aphthous ulcer
    • It is small painful ulcer seen on the tip, undersurface, and sides of the tongue in its anterior part
    • It is small and superficial
    • Surrounded by hyperaemic zone
  • Dental ulcer
    • Caused by mechanical irritation
    • Occurs at the periphery or undersurface of the tongue
  • Syphilitic ulcer
    • Called snail track ulcer
    • Occurs rarely on tongue
  • Tuberculous ulcer
    • Ulcers are shallow, multiple and greyish-yellow in color
    • Seen at the tip, margin, and dorsum of tongue
  • Post pertussis ulcer
    • Occurs in children with whopping cough
    • Seen at the upper part of frenum linguae and undersurface of the tip
  • Chronic nonspecific ulcer
    • Occurs in the anterior 2/3rd of the tongue
    • It is moderately indurated
  • Carcinomatous ulcer
    • Occurs in elder persons
    • Site involves- anterior 2/3rd of tongue
    • It may be single or multiple
  • Herpetic ulcer
    • Common in children and young adults
    • Associated with acute neuralgic pain
    • Vesicles appear
  • Ulcers due to glossitis
  • Ulcers are superficial and multiple with hyperaemia
  • Pain occurs during meals

Diseases Of The Oral Cavity Ulcers Of Tongue Painful And Painless Ulcers

Question 6. Haemangioma of tongue
Answer:

Haemangioma of tongue

  • Cavernous haemangioma occurs on tongue
  • Arises from veins
  • It consists of multiple dilated venous channels
  • It is a spongy swelling

Haemangioma of tongue Management:

  • Conservative treatment
    • Injection of sclerosing agent
    • Cautery
  • Surgery
    • Ligation of feeding vessels
    • Excision of the esion
    • Diathermy to control haemorrhage

Question 7. Predisposing factors- carcinoma of tongue
Answer:

Predisposing factors- carcinoma of tongue

  • Predisposing factors of carcinoma of tongue are
    • Pipe smoking
    • Syphilis
    • Chronic superficial glossitis
    • Alcohol
    • Chronic irritation
    • Betel nut

Question 8. Glossitis
Answer:

Glossitis

Involvement of tongue due to any cause with or without inflammation is called glossitis

Glossitis Causes:

  • Local causes
    • Mechanical trauma
    • Mechanical irritation
    • Allergic reaction
    • Dry mouth
  • Systemic causes
    • Herpes simplex virus
    • Iron deficiency anaemia
    • Aphthous ulcer
    • Oral lichen planus
    • Pemphigus vulgaris

Glossitis Clinical Features:

  • Pain and tenderness in the tongue
  • Swelling in the tongue
  • Color changes to beefy dark red or pale
  • Halitosis
  • Difficulty in speech, eating, and swallowing
  • Loss of papillae on tongue

Question 9. Sinusitis
Answer:

Sinusitis Etiology:

  • Nasal infections
  • Dental infections
  • Trauma

Sinusitis Causative Organisms:

  • Streptococcus
  • Pneumococci
  • Staphylococci
  • Clinical Features:
  • Pain on lowering your head
  • Tenderness in canine fossa
  • Redness of the area
  • Nasal discharge
  • Nose block
  • Change in voice
  • Dry cough
  • Fever
  • Malaise
  • Headache

Question 10. Anaplasia
Answer:

Anaplasia Definition:

  • Anaplasia is lack of differentiation and is a characteristic features of most malignant tumours.
  • Depending upon the degree of differentiation, the extent of anaplasia is also variable i.e., poorly differentiated malignant tumours have high degree of anaplasia.

Result of Anaplasia:

  1. Loss of polarity
  2. Pleomorphism
  3. N: C ratio changes from 1:5 to 1:1
  4. Anisonucleosis.
  5. Hyperchromatism.
  6. Prominent nucleolus
  7. Tumorgaint cells
  8. Chromosomal abnormalities.

Question 11. Metaplasia
Answer:

Metaplasia Definition: Metaplasia is defined as a reversible change of over type of epithelial or mesenchymal adult cells to another type of adult epithelial or mesenchymal cells, usually in response to abnormal stimuli.

Metaplasia Types: Metaplasia is divided into the following two types.

  1. Epithelial Metaplasia
    1. Squamous metaplasia
    2. Columnar metaplasia
  2. Mesenchyme metaplasia
    1. Osseous metaplasia
    2. Cartilaginous metaplasia

Question 12. Oral thrush
Answer:

Oral thrush Features:

  • The lesions appear soft, white, and slightly elevated plaques
  • Sites involved are:
  1. Buccal mucosa
  2. Tongue
  3. Gingiva
  4. Palate
  5. Floor of the mouth
  6. Entire oral cavity’ is involved in severe cases

Oral thrush Person affected arc

  1. HIV patients
  2. Cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy or radiotherapy
  3. Neonates and infants
  4. Debilitated and chronically ill patients

Question 13. Impacted teeth
Answer:

Impacted teeth Definition: It is cessation of eruption of a tooth caused by a physical barrier or ectopic positioning of a tooth

Impacted teeth Causes:

Diseases Of The Oral Cavity Impacted Teeth Causes

Question 14. Micrognathia
Answer:

Micrognathia

It is an orofacial anomaly characterized by development of jaws smaller than normal

Micrognathia Causes:

  • Pierre- Robin syndrome
  • Hallerman- Steriff syndrome
  • Trisomy 13
  • Trisomy 18
  • Turner syndrome
  • Marfan syndrome
  • Progeria

Micrognathia Types:

  • Pseudo micrognathia
  • True micrognathia

Micrognathia Clinical Features:

  • Defective alignment of teeth
  • Crowding
  • Malocclusion
  • Retruded chin
  • Difficulty in feeding
  • Difficulty in speech

Question 15. Macroglossia
Answer:

Macroglossia

Macroglossia is characterised by an abnormally large tongue in oral cavity

Macroglossia Types:

  • Congenital
  • Acquired

Macroglossia Clinical Features:

  • Causes displacement of teeth
  • Develops tongue-thrusting habits
  • Results in obstructive sleep apneoa
  • Spacing in teeth
  • Distortion of the mandibular arch
  • Lateral margin of tongue exhibits scalloping indentation
  • Defective speech
  • Unesthetic appearance

Macroglossia Treatment:

  • Removal of causative agent
  • Surgical reduction or trimming

Question 16. Giant cell epulis
Answer:

Giant cell epulis

  • Peripheral giant cell granuloma is also called giant cell epulis
  • It appears in the mouth as an overgrowth of tissue due to irritation or trauma
  • They frequently appears on gingiva n Color ranges from red to bluish-purple
  • It can be pedunculated or sessile
  • Common in females
  • More often found over the mandible rather than the maxilla
  • The underlying alveolar bone can be destroyed resulting in saucerization
  • Treatment involves surgical removal of bone

Question 17. Causes of Macroglossia
Answer:

Causes of Macroglossia

It is an abnormally large tongue

Question 18. Subacute osteomyelitis
Answer:

Subacute osteomyelitis

  • It is a chronic low-grade infection of bone characterized by lack of systemic manifestation
  • Causative organism is Staphylococcus
  • The onset is insidious
  • Pain is a common symptom
  • Swelling and tenderness over the involved area is seen
  • Treatment
    • Surgical debridement
    • Antibiotics

Diseases Of The Oral Cavity Viva voce

1. Cancrum Oris is associated with leukemia

2. Carcinoma of the lip commonly occurs over lower lip

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