Diseases Of The Nervous System Important Notes

Diseases Of The Nervous System Important Notes

  1. Bell’s palsy
    • It is idiopathic paralysis of facial nerve
    • Etiology
      • Rheumatic – Cold
      • Ischaemia
      • Immunological
      • Viral
    • Clinical features
      • Pain in post auricular region
      • Sudden onset
      • Unilateral loss of function
      • Loss of facial expression
      • Absence of wrinkling
      • Inability to close eye
      • Watering of eye
      • Inability to blow
      • Obliteration of nasolabial fold
      • Loss of taste sensation
      • Hyperacusis
      • Slurring of speech
  2. Grand mal epilepsy
    • Phases
      • Prodromal phase
      • Aura
      • Tonic and clonic phase
      • Postictal phase
  3. Nerve lesionDiseases Of The Nervous System Nerve Lesion
  4. lower motor neuron v/s upper motor neuronDiseases Of The Nervous System Lower Neuron Or Upper Motor Neuron
  5. Types of seizuresDiseases Of The Nervous System Types Of Seizures
  6. Pyogenic meningitis
    • Etiology
      • Cram negative bacteria
      • Croup B streptococci
      • Listeria monocytogenes
      • H. influenza
      • N. meningitides
      • M. tuberculosis
      • Drug of choice – ceftriaxone
  7. Features of Horner’s syndrome
    • Miosis
    • Ptosis
    • Anhydrosis
    • Enophthalmos
  8. Drug of choice in different seizuresDiseases Of The Nervous System Drug Of Choice In Different Seizure
  9. Disorders of basal ganglia
    • Parkinson’s disease
    • Wilson’s degeneration
    • Chorea
    • Athetosis
  10. Parkinsonism
    • It is syndrome consisting of akinesia and bradykinesia, rigidity, and tremors
    • Anticholinergics are used for it
  11. Migraine
    • It is characterised by an episodic hemicranial or unilateral throbbing headache and is often associated with nausea, vomiting, and visual disturbances. It is most common vascular headache
    • Causes pain of face and jaws
    • Occurs due to vasoconstriction of intracranial vessels followed by vasodilation
  12. Status epilepticus
    • It is a condition in which a series of seizures occur in the patient without regaining consciousness in between successive attacks
    • Precipitating factors
      • Sudden withdrawal of drugs
      • Irregular use of anticonvulsants
      • Following major intracranial pathology
    • Treatment
      • Immediate treatment
        • Rest the patient on the bed
        • Loosen the clothes
        • Maintain airway
        • Administration of high concentration of 02
        • Administration of 20-25 ml dextrose
        • Transfer the patient to ICU
    • Late treatment
      • Diazepam 10 mg IV repeat once only after 15 min
      • Lorazepam 4 mg IV repeated after 10 min
        • If the patient does not respond then drip of phenytoin 15 mg/kg at the rate of 50 mg/min
        • If still not controlled then 4 drip of thiopentone sodium 20 mg/kg at 50-100 mg/min.

Diseases Of The Nervous System Nervous System

Read And Learn More: General Medicine Question and Answers

  1. Trigeminal neuralgia
    • Occurs due to paralysis of the trigeminal nerve
    • Clinical features
      • Site: right lower portion of the face, usually unilateral
      • Duration: a few seconds to a few minutes
      • As time passes duration between the cycles decreases
      • Nature: stabbing or lancinating
      • Aggravating factors: activation of TRIGGER ZONES
      • These are the Vermillion border of the lip, around the eyes, ala of nose
      • Interference with other activities:
      • The patient avoids shaving, washing face, chewing, and brushing, as these may aggravate pain
      • These lead to a poor lifestyle
      • Extreme cases: leads to “FROZEN OR MASK-LIKE FACE”
  2. Syncope
    • It refers to generalized weakness of muscles, loss of postural tone, inability to maintain an erect posture, and loss of consciousness
    • Syncope Causes
      • Decreases cerebral perfusion
        • Inadequate vasoconstrictor mechanism
        • Hypovolemia
        • Reduction of venous return
        • Reduced cardiac output
        • Arrhythmias
        • Cerebrovascular disturbances
      • Noncirculatory causes
        • Hypoxia
        • Prolonged bed rest
        • Hypoglycaemia
        • Anaemia
        • Anxiety neurosis
        • Hyperventilation
    • Syncope Types
      • Vasovagal syncope
      • Postural hypotension with syncope
      • Micturition syncope
      • Cardiac syncope
      • Carotid sinus syncope
      • Cough syncope
      • Syncope of cerebrovascular disease
  3. Petit mal epilepsy
    • Typically seen in children
    • It is brief, and lasts only for seconds
    • They may left unnoticed by the people
    • Later it may develop into tonic-clonic seizures in adulthood

Occurs due to developmental abnormality of neuronal control

  1. Babinski’ sign
    • Extension of the great toe with fanning of other toes is called Babinski’s sign
  2. Headache
    • Classification
      • Migraine headache
      • Tension type of headache
      • Cluster headache
      • Miscellaneous headache
      • Traumatic headache
      • Headache due to vascular causes- hematoma
      • Headache due to nonvascular causes- due to increased pressure
      • Headache due to substance abuse- alcohol
      • Headache due to systemic infection
      • Headache due to metabolic disorders
      • Headache due to referred pain- from the ear, etc.
      • Cranial neuralgia- trigeminal neuralgia
      • Unclassified headache

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