Dental Pharmacology Question And Answers

Dental Pharmacology Important Notes

1. Drugs causing dry mouth

  • Anticholinergic
  • Ganglion blocking agents
  • Antihistamines

2. Drugs causing gingival hyperplasia

  • Phenytoin
  • Nifedipine
  • Cyclosporines

Dental Pharmacology Short Essays

Question 1. Mummifying agents.

  • Mummifying denotes the hardening of dead tissue and rendering it resistant to microbial attack and degradation
  • Mummifying agents were used earlier before the use of root canal-filling materials
  • They were used to kill tissues in the tooth pulp, make it hard and dry so it does not get infected later
  • Mummifying agents are

1. Formaldehyde or paraformaldehyde

  • It is mixed with zinc oxide or zinc sulfate + creosote
  • A paste is made by it to fill the root canal
  • Paraformaldehyde releases formaldehyde slowly which
    • Destroys all living tissues of the pulp
    • Hardens it
    • Makes it more resistant to future infection
  • To prevent pain caused by filling, lidocaine may be added to the paste

2. Iodoform + phenol

  • The paste is made of it glycerine
  • Eugenol or cinnamon oil may be added to add frag- nance
  • Liberated iodine or phenol helps to keep the pulp uninfected

3. Tannic acid

  • Mixed with an additive to get a paste form

Question 2. Drugs used in Halitosis.

  • Halitosis is an unpleasant odor exhaled in breathing
  • Treatment of halitosis depends on the cause

1. Mouthwashes – containing antibacterial agents including

  • Cetylpyridium chloride
  • Chlorhexidine
  • Zinc gluconate
  • Essential oils
  • Hydrogen peroxide
  • Chlorine dioxide
    • Mouthwashes can temporarily stain teeth
    • Chlorhexidine is a chemical antiseptic
    • It kills volatile sulfur compounds producing bacteria
    • Cetylpyridium chloride has bacteriocidal action which kills the bacteria and microbes present in the mouth causing halitosis
    • Chlorine dioxide effectively reduces plaque, tongue coating accumulation, and Fusobacterium nucleatum count in saliva

2. Cimetidine

  • When the gastric acid in the stomach flows bade up into the food pipe due to indigestion it causes heartburn and bad breath
  • Cimetidine is H2 receptor antagonist
  • It is used to treat the heartburn

3. Ranitidine

  • It is an antacid
  • Inhibits gastric add secretion

Question 3. Dentrifrice.

  • It is a substance used with a toothbrush for the purpose of cleaning the accessible surfaces of teeth
  • Used in the form of powder, paste, or gel

Dentrifrice Functions:

  • Minimize plaque build-up
  • Anticaries action
  • Removal of stains
  • Mouth freshener

Dentrifrice Composition:

  • Abrasive
  • Calcium carbonate
  • Calcium phosphate
  • Humectants
  • Maintains moisture
  • Glycerine, sorbitol
  • Preservatives
  • Benzoic acid
  • Thickening agents
  • Methylcellulose
  • Foaming agents
  • Sodium lauryl sulfate
  • Flavoring agents
  • Mint
  • Sweetening agents
  • Mannitol saccharine
  • Desensitizing agents
  • Sodium fluoride
  • Anticalculus agent
  • Pyrophosphates

Question 4. Disclosing agents.

  • They are prepared in liquid, tablet, or lozenge form that contains a dye or other coloring agent
  • It is used to identify bacterial plaque for instruction, evaluation, and research

Disclosing agents Purpose:

  • Patient’s education
  • Evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment
  • Evaluate plaque indices
  • Self-evaluation

Disclosing agents Requirements:

  • Color should contrast with the normal color of the oral cavity
  • It should not rinse off immediately
  • It should not have bad taste
  • It should not cause any irritation
  • It should be thin enough

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Disclosing agents Agents:

  • Iodine containing preparation
  • Bismarck brown
  • Merbromin
  • Erythrosine
  • Fast green
  • Two-tone

Dental Pharmacology Short Question And Answers

Question 1. Use of fluorides in caries.

  • Fluorides make the tooth more resistant to caries
  • It has weak antibacterial action
  • It can be administered either systemically or locally to the teeth
    • Topical fluoride
    • Placed directly on the teeth
    • It includes

1. Fluoride toothpaste

  • A most common and effective method
  • Salts used in it are sodium fluoride, sodium mon- fluorophosphate or stannous fluoride
  • It should not be swallowed to avoid systemic toxicity

2. Fluoride mouth rinses

  • Sodium fluoride and stannous fluoride are used as daily mouth rinses
  • The rinse solution is held in the mouth for 1-3 minutes and swished around and then discarded

3. Professionally applied fluoride

  • It includes – APF gel and fluoride varnishes
    • Systemic fluoride
      • Circulate through the bloodstream and are incorporated into developing teeth
      • It includes

Water fluoridation

  • It is the upward adjustment of the concentration of fluoride ions in a public water supply in such a way that the concentration of fluoride ion in the water may be consistently maintained at one part per million by weight to prevent dental caries with minimum possibility of causing dental fluorosis

Salt fluoridation

  • Fluoride is added to salt by spraying concentrated solutions of sodium fluoride and potassium fluoride on salt on a conveyor belt

Milk fluoridation

  • Milk is an excellent source of calcium and phosphorous
  • It contains all essentials for the development of bone and teeth

Question 2. Sweetening agents.

  • They are substances used to impart a sweet taste to a pharmaceutical preparation
  • They are used in centrifuges to
    • Mask their blandness
    • Improve their taste
    • Make them acceptable
  • Agents used are

1. Saccharin

  • It is an artificial sweetener
  • 500 times more sweet than sugar
  • It is no cariogenic
  • Used as a dilute solution
  • Excreted unchanged within 24 hours
  • It is stable and nontoxic
  • Enhances palatability

2. Sorbitol

3. Glycerol

Question 3. Obtundents.

  • Obtundents are agents that diminish dentin sensitivity
  • When applied to the teeth and gums it produces numbness that could dampen toothache
  • They penetrate poorly and do not relieve deep pain

Obtundents Disadvantages:

  • Pulp may shrink
  • Irritants may stimulate the formation of secondary dentin

Obtundents Agents:

Dental Pharmacology Obtundents Agents

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