Bronchial Asthma Question And Answers

Drugs And Cough And Bronchial Asthma Important Notes

1. Drugs used in bronchial asthma

  • Bronchodilators
    • Sympathomimetics
      • Selective β2 agonists
    • Short-acting – salbutamol, Terbutaline
    • Longer acting – salmeterol
      • Non-selective agents – adrenaline, aminophylline
    • Methylxanthines – Heophylline, aminophylline
    • Anticholinergics – ipratropium bromide, atropine
  • Anti-inflammatory
    • Systemic – glucocorticoids, hydrocortisone, prednisolone
    • Inhalational – beclomethasone, triamcinolone
  • Mast cell stabilizer – disodium cromoglycate
  • Leukotriene receptor antagonists – Montelukast
  • Anti – IgE antibody – Omalizumab

2. Drugs causing bronchospasm

  • ACE inhibitors
  • Aspirin and other NSAIDs
  • Beta-blockers
  • Cholinergic drugs
  • Bulk-forming laxatives
  • Quinine
  • Morphine

3. Ipratropium bromide

  • It is an anticholinergic drug
  • Produces slower response
  • Used for regular prophylactic use

4. Mechanism of adrenergic as a bronchodilator

  • Stimulation of β2 receptor
  • Increased cAMP formation in bronchi muscle cells
  • Relaxation of bronchi

5. Salbutamol

  • It is β2 receptor agonist
  • Safer than adrenaline and isoprenaline in the treatment of asthma
  • Uses
    • In acute exacerbation of asthma
    • COPD
    • For short-term relief of bronchoconstrictor

Drugs And Cough And Bronchial Asthma Short Essays

Question 1. Mention two drugs used to suppress dry cough

Drugs Used To Suppress Dry Cough:

1. Pharyngeal demulcents

  • Lozenges
  • Cough drops
  • Glycerine

2. Expectorants

  • Bronchial secretion enhancers
    • Sodium or potassium citrate
    • Potassium iodide
    • Balsum of tolu
  • Mucolytic
    • Bromhexine
    • Acetylcysteine

3. Antitussives

  • Opioids
    • Codeine
    • Pholcodine
  • Non Opioids
    • Noscapine
    • Dextromethorphan
  • Antihistamines
    • Chlorpheniramine
    • Diphenhydramine
    • Promethazine

4. Adjuvant Antitussives

  • Bronchodilators- Salbutamol, terbutalin

Read And Learn More: Pharmacology Question and Answers

Drugs And Cough And Bronchial Asthma Bronchodilators - Salbutamol, Terbutalin

Question 2. Noscapine

  • Noscapine is a natural opium alkaloid
  • It is a potent Antitussive
  • It is highly effective and safe
  • It may cause bronchoconstriction due to the release of histamine
  • It acts by inhibiting the cough center In the medulla

Noscapine Use:

  • Cough suppressant

Noscapine Adverse Effects:

  • Nausea
  • Headache

Noscapine Dose:

  • 15-30 mg 6 hourly

Question 3. Disodium cromoglycate

  • Disodium cromoglycate is a synthetic derivative
  • It belongs to a group of antiasthmatic drugs
  • It is administered as an aerosol through metered dose inhaler

Disodium cromoglycate Mechanism of Action:

  • Inhibits degranulation of mast cells
  • Inhibits the release of inflammatory mediators
  • Inhibits the release of cytokines
  • Depresses neuronal reflexes

Disodium cromoglycate Adverse Effects:

  • Throat irritation
  • Cough
  • Rarely bronchospasm and allergic reactions

Disodium cromoglycate Uses:

1. Prophylactic in bronchial asthma

  • It is used for longer periods in mild to moderate asthma
  • 2 puffs, 3-4 times daily

2. Allergic rhinitis

  • Used as a nasal spray to produce symptomatic improvement

3. Allergic conjunctivitis

  • Used as eyedrops
  • 1-2 drops, 3-4 times daily

Question 4. Salbutamol

  • Salbutamol is a sympathomimetic drug
  • It is fast acting bronchodilator
  • The onset of action-1-5 min
  • Duration of action- short

Salbutamol Actions:

  • Bronchodilator
  • Relaxation of the pregnant uterus
  • Dilatation of blood vessels supplying the skeletal muscles
  • Promote peptic glycogenolysis and uptake of potassium

Salbutamol Uses:

  • In bronchial asthma- 100-200 meg every 6 hours through metered dose inhaler
  • To delay premature labor
  • In hyperkalemia

Salbutamol Adverse Effects:

  • Tachycardia, palpitation
  • Muscle tremors
  • Tolerance
  • Restlessness, nervousness
  • Throat irritation
  • Ankle edema
  • Hyperglycaemia, hypokalaemia

Question 5. Pharmacotherapy of status asthmatics

Treatment of status asthmaticus is as follows:

Drugs And Cough And Bronchial Asthma Pharmacotherapy Of Status Asthamaticus

Question 6. Mention three groups of drugs used in bronchial asthma with an example.

Drugs Used in Bronchial Asthma:

Drugs And Cough And Bronchial Asthma Drugs Used In Bronchial Asthma

Question 7. Write the rationale for using any one drug for asthma.

The Rationale of Using Sympathomimetic Drugs in Bronchial Asthma:

  • Sympathomimetic drugs like adrenaline have the following mechanism

Drugs And Cough And Bronchial Asthma Rationale Of Using Sympathomimentic Drugs In Bronchial Asthma

  • It has a rapid onset and a short duration of action
  • Hence it is used in acute asthmatic attacks as aerosol

Drugs And Cough And Bronchial Asthma Short Question And Answers

Question 1. Aminophylline

  • Aminophylline is one of the methylxanthines

Aminophylline Mechanism of Action:

  • Enhances cAMP levels
  • Causes bronchodilatation
  • Inhibits the release of inflammatory mediators

Aminophylline Actions:

  • CNS stimulant
  • CVS stimulant
  • Relaxes smooth muscles
  • Mild diuretic
  • Enhances secretion of acid and pepsin in the stomach
  • Inhibits the release of inflammatory mediators

Aminophylline Uses:

  • Bronchial asthma and COPD
  • Apnea in the premature infant

Aminophylline Adverse Effects:

  • Dyspepsia, vomiting, nervousness, tremor, delirium, hypotension, arrhythmia, and convulsions

Question 2. Nasal decongestants.

  • Nasal decongestants stimulate the alpha receptors and cause vasoconstriction in the nasal mucous membrane and relieve nasal congestion

Drugs Used As Nasal Decongestants:

  • Naphazoline
  • Pseudoephedrine
  • Phenylephrine
  • Imidazole

Nasal decongestants Use:

  • Allergic rhinitis
  • Common cold
  • Sinusitis

Nasal decongestants Adverse Effects:

  • Atrophic rhinitis
  • Anosmia
  • Local irritation

Question 3. The rationale for using Salbutamol in bronchial asthma

  • Salbutamol is used in asthma to reduce cardiac side effects
  • Inhaled Salbutamol produces bronchodilatation within 5 min
  • Its action lasts for 2-4 hours
  • It is the most effective, convenient, and relatively safe
  • Hence it is used to terminate the attacks of asthma.

Question 4. Beclomethasone

  • Beclomethasone is long acting glucocorticoid

Beclomethasone Mechanism of Action:

  • Suppresses inflammatory response to antigen-antibody reaction
  • Reduces mucosal edema and hyper irritability

Beclomethasone Uses:

  • Prophylactic use to prevent acute attacks of asthma
  • Prevent bronchial hypersensitivity
  • Controls the symptoms

Beclomethasone Available As:

  • Nasal spray- For allergic rhinitis
  • Ointment- For skin and mucous membrane

Beclomethasone Dose:

  • Beclate inhaler- 50,100,200 microgram
  • Metered dose-1-2 puffs 3-4 times a day

Beclomethasone Adverse Effects:

  • Hoarseness of voice
  • Sore throat
  • Oropharyngeal Candidiasis

Question 5. Ipratropium.

  • It is a semi-synthetic anticholinergic drug
  • Given by inhalation

Ipratropium Uses:

  • Bronchial asthma
  • COPD
  • Inhaled ipratropium – used as a prophylactic agent
  • Nebulized ipratropium mixed with salbutamol – used in refractory asthma

Question 5. Name four bronchodilators.

  • Sympathomimetics – adrenaline, isoprenaline, salbutamol
  • Methyl xanthine – theophylline, aminophylline
  • Anticholinergic – ipratropium bromide, tiotropium bromide

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