Epidemiology Of Gingival And Periodontal Diseases Short Essays

Epidemiology Of Gingival And Periodontal Diseases Short Essays

Question 1. Plaque Index.

  • Selected tooth – entire dentition

1. Selected teeth

  • Surfaces: Distofacial, facial, mesiofacial and lingual
  • Site: Cervical third of the tooth

Plaque Index Scoring:

Epidemiology Of Gingival And Periodontal Diseases Plaque index

Plaque Index Calculation:

  • Per tooth-Score/4
  • Per person – Score per tooth/No. of teeth

Question 2. OHI-S by Greene and Vermillion.

  • The oral hygiene index-simplified was described by John C. Greene and Jack R. Vermillion in 1964
  • Tooth Examined:
  • 16/17, 11, 26/27
  • 46/47,31 36/37
  • Surfaces: Facial of 16/17, 11, 26/27, 36/37 Lingual of 31

OHI-S Sites:

  • D1-S – Incisal third to gingival third
  • C1-S Distal gingival crevice subgingivally from dis- tal to medial contact

OHI-S Scoring: For D1-S:

  • 0-No debris
  • 1-Debris covering 1/3rd of tooth surface
  • 2-Debris covering more than 1/3rd and less than 2/3rd of tooth surface
  • 3-Debris covering more than 2/3rd of tooth surface

Read And Learn More: Periodontics Question and Answers

For CI-S:

  • O-No calculus
  • 1-Supragingival calculus covering 1/3rd of tooth surface
  • 2-Supragingival calculus covering more than 1/3rd but less than 2/3rd of tooth surface
  • 3-Supragingival calculus covering more than 2/3rd of the tooth surface, heavy bands of subgingival
    calculus also present

OHI-S Calculation:

  • OH1 – S = D1-S+C1-S

OHI-S Interpretation:

  • Good – 0.0 to 1.2
  • Fair – 1.3 to 3.0
  • Poor – 3.1 to 6.0

Question 3. Russel’s Periodontal Index.

  • By Russell Al.

Teeth examined:

  • All


Epidemiology Of Gingival And Periodontal Diseases Clinically and Radiographically


  • 0-0.2 – Normal
  • 0.3-0.9 – Simple Gingivitis
  • 0.7-1.9 – Beginning of destructive disease
  • 1.6-5.0 – Established destructive disease
  • 3.8-8.0 – Terminal disease

Question 4. Gingival Index – by Loe and Stillness.

  • Teeth Examined: All or selected

Gingival Index Surfaces:

  • Distal facial papillae
  • Facial margin
  • Mesial facial papillae
  • Lingual margin

Gingival Index Scoring:

  • 0-No inflammation
  • 1-Mild inflammation, no bleeding on probing
  • 2-Moderate inflammation, and bleeding on probing
  • 3-Severe inflammation

Gingival Index Calculation:

  • Per tooth-Score/4
  • Per person\( -\frac{\text { TotalScore }}{\text { Total teeth examined }}\)

Gingival Index Interpretation:

  • 0.1-1.0 – Mild gingivitis
  • 1.1-2.0 – Moderate gingivitis
  • 2.1-3.0 – Sever gingivitis

Question 5. CPITN.

CPITN Objectives:

  • Mild gingivitis Moderate gingivitis Severe gingivitis
  • To survey and evaluate periodontal treatment needs Identify actual and potential problems posed by periodontal diseases both in the community and in the individual

Teeth examined: Ten specified index teeth are

  • 17-16  11  26-27
  • 47-46  31  36-37

CPITN Scoring:

  • Code X – When only one tooth or no teeth are present in the sextant
  • Code 0 – Healthy periodontium
  • Code 1 – Bleeding on probing
  • Code 2 – Calculus present
  • Code 3 – Pocket of 4-5 mm
  • Code 4 – Pocket of more than 6 mm

CPITN Treatment Needs:

  • TN-0 -No treatment
  • TN-1 -Improvement of personal oral hygiene
  • TN-2 -Professional scaling
  • TN-3 Complex treatment involving deep scaling, root planning and complex procedures

Question 6. Incidence and prevalence.


  • It is defined as the number of new cases of a specific disease occurring in a defined population during a specified period of time

Incidence Uses:

  • Provide a clue for the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease
  • Study the distribution of the study
  • Control the disease

Incidence Types:

  1. Episode incidence
    • It is the rate of occurrence of new episodes of a dis- case arising in the population
  2. Cumulative incidence
    • Similar to incidence but the time interval is ex-presses as a fixed period


  • The total number of all individuals who have an attribute or disease at a particular time divided by the population at risk of having the attribute or disease at this point in time or midway through the period

Prevalence Uses:

  • Estimate the magnitude of disease or health problems in the community
  • Identify the potential high-risk population
  • Useful in administrative and planning purposes like assessing manpower needs in health services

Prevalence Types:

1. Point prevalence:

  • It is the number of all current cases of a specific dis-ease at one point in time in relation to a defined population

2. Period prevalence:

  • It is defined as the total number of existing cases of a specific disease during a defined period of time ex- pressed in relation to a defined population

Question 7. Describe the possible causes as to why the incidence, and prevalence of periodontal diseases are very high in India.

  • The prevalence of periodontal disease in India is high due to:
  • Low socioeconomic group
  • Poor oral hygiene practice
  • Greater prevalence in mentally retarded children due to
    • Lack of awareness of oral hygiene
    • Nutritional deficiency
    • Malocclusion
    • Oral health habits like bruxism, tongue thrusting, mouth breathing
    • Low power of concentration
    • Low neuromuscular coordination
  • Vegetarian diet
  • Hereditary
  • Presence of habits like smoking and betel nut chewing
  • Evaluate the efficacy of preventive and therapeutic
  • Malnutrition
  • measures
  • Presence of systemic disease

Question 8. Define index. uses and ideal requirements of an index.

Index Definition:

  • Numerical values describing the relative status of the population on a graduated scale with definite upper and lower limits designated to permit and facilitate comparisons with other populations that are classified by the same criteria and methods are referred to as index

Index Uses:

  1. In the case of individual patients
    • Provides individual assessment
    • Reveals the degree of effectiveness
    • Motivates the patient
    • Evaluates the progress of treatment
  2. In the case of research studies
    • Determines the baseline data before the introduction of experimental factors
    • Measures effectiveness of specific agents for pre-version control and treatment of oral conditions
    • Measures effectiveness of devices for personal care
  3. In community health
    • Provides baseline data
    • Assesses the needs of a community
    • Evaluates the results

Index Ideal Requirements:

  • Clarity simplicity
  • The examiner should remember the rules of the index clearly
  • The index should be simple & easy to apply
  • The criteria should be objective
  • Validity
  • The index should measure what it is intended to measure
  • It should correspond to the clinical stages of the disease under study
  • Reliability
  • The index should measure consistently at different times & under a variety of conditions
  • Quantifiability
  • The index should be amenable to statistical analysis so that the status can be expressed by a number
  • Sensitivity
  • The index should be able to detect small shifts in either direction
  • Acceptability
  • The use of an index should not be painful or demeaning to the subject

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