Dental Calculus and Other Local Predisposing Factors Question and Answers

Dental Calculus And Other Etiological Factors

Definitions

1. Calculus: Calculus is an adherent, calcified, or calcifying mass that forms on the surfaces of teeth and dental appliances

2. Food impaction: Forceful wedging of the food into the periodontium by occlusal forces

Dental Calculus And Other Etiological Factors Important Notes

1. Composition of calculus

Calculus And Other Etiological Factors Inorganic constituents and Organic constituents

2. Theories of calculus formation

  • Booster mechanism
  • Colloidal proteins in saliva
  • Liberation of phosphate
  • Epitactic concept
  • Inhibition theory

3. Differences between supragingival and subgingival calculus

Calculus And Other Etiological Factors differences between supragingival and subgingival calculus

4. Modes of attachment of calculus

  • By means of an organic pellicle
  • By mechanical interlocking into lacunae and caries
  • Penetration into cementum
  • Close adaptation to cementum surface

5. Sequele of food impaction

  • Gingivitis
  • Periodontal pocket
  • Bone loss
  • Tooth mobility

Read And Learn More: Periodontics Question and Answers

6. Factors causing vertical food impaction

  • Uneven occlusal wear
  • Opening of the contact point
  • improper restoration

7. Stains and their causes

Calculus And Other Etiological Factors Brown and Lack of oral hygiene

8. Features of different terms

Calculus And Other Etiological Factors Features of different terms

Dental Calculus And Other Etiological Factors Long Essays

Question 1. Define and Classify calculus. Describe its structure, composition, and etiology.
Answer:

Calculus Definition:

  • Calculus is an adherent, calcified, or calcifying mass that forms on the surfaces of teeth and dental
    appliances

Calculus  Types:

1. Supragingival:

  • Location – Above gingival margin
  • Formation – From salivary secretion

2. Subgingival:

  • Location – Below free gingiva
  • Formation – Gingival exudates

Calculus  Structure

  1. Supragingival: Whitish yellow in color
  2. Subgingival: Dark brown or greenish black

Calculus Forms:

  • Ring like
  • Ledge like
  • Crusty
  • Spiny
  • Nodular
  • Finger-like
  • Fern-like

Calculus  Composition:

Calculus  Inorganic constituents:

  • Calcium
  • Phosphorous
  • Carbonate
  • Sodium
  • Magnesium
  • Fluoride
  • Hydroxyapatite
  • Whitlocklite
  • octacalcium phosphate
  • Brushite

Calculus Organic constituents:

  • Carbohydrate
  • Proteins
  • Lipids
  • Leukocytes
  • Micro-organisms
  • Desquamated cells

Calculus  Etiology:

  • Bacterial deposits
  • Poor oral hygiene
  • Iatrogenic factors
    • Faulty restoration
    • Overhanging
  • Plunger cusps
  • Orthodontic appliances
  • Unreplaced missing teeth
  • Malocclusion
  • Habits

Question 2. Discuss the role of iatrogenic factors in the etiology of periodontal diseases.
Answer:

Calculus And Other Etiological Factors latrogenic factors and effects
Calculus And Other Etiological Factors latrogenic factors and effects.

Dental Calculus And Other Etiological Factors Short Essays

Question 1. Theories regarding mineralization of Dental calculus. (or) Theories of Calculus Formation.
Answer:

  • Precipitation of minerals due to a local rise in Calcium and Phosphate

1. Booster mechanism:

Precipitation of calcium phosphate salts

Loss of CO2 and ammonia

A local rise in the pH of saliva

Calculus formation

2. Colloidal proteins in saliva:

Binding to calcium and phosphate

Results in supersaturation solution

When saliva stagnates, results in the precipitation of salts

3. Liberation of phosphatize:

  • By precipitation of calcium phosphate

4. Epitactic concept:

Seeding agents (intercellular matrix of plaque, carbohydrate, protein complexes, and plaque bacteria)

Induce small foci of calcification

These enlarge and form calcification

5. Inhibition theory:

  • States that calcification occurs at specific sites be- cause of inhibiting mechanism at non-calcifying sites
  • At the calcifying site, the inhibiting mechanism is removed

Example: Pyrophosphate

Question 2. Supra and Subgingival Calculus/Difference between supragingival and subgingival Calculus. Answer:

Calculus And Other Etiological Factors difference between supregingival and subgingival calculus

Calculus And Other Etiological Factors Subgingival deposits on the root surface of extracted lower anterior tooth

Calculus And Other Etiological Factors Supra gingival calculus on the lingual surfaces of lower anterors

Question 3. Modes of attachment of calculus.
Answer:

  • By means of an organic pellicle
  • By mechanical interlocking into lacunae and caries
  • Penetration into cementum
  • Close adaptation to cementum surface

Dental Calculus And Other Etiological Factors Short Answers

Question 1. Pathologic migration of tooth/ Causes of Patho- Faulty restoration logic migration.
Answer:

Refers to tooth displacement that results when the balance among the factors that maintain physiologic tooth position is disturbed by periodontal disease. Teeth affected: Common in the anterior region

Pathologic Migration of Tooth Symptoms:

  • Mobility of teeth
  • Rotation of teeth
  • Extrusion

Pathologic Migration of Tooth Causes:

  • Weakened periodontal support
  • Changes in forces exerted on teeth
  • Unreplaced missing teeth
  • Failure to replace the first molar

Pathologic Migration of Tooth Other Causes:

  • Pressure from tongue
  • Pressure from granulation tissue

Question 2. Epitactic concept of calculus formation.
Answer:

Seeding agents (intercellular matrix of plaque, carbohydrate, protein complexes, and plaque bacteria)‎

Induce small foci of calcification

These enlarge and form calcification

Question 3. Modes of Attachment of Calculus.
Answer:

  • By means of an organic pellicle
  • By mechanical interlocking into lacunae and caries
  • Penetration into cementum
  • Close adaptation to cementum surface

Question 4. Etiological Significance of Calculus.
Answer:

  • Initially, calculus causes damage to the gingival margin
  • Provides retention of more microorganisms
  • Brings microorganisms close to supporting structures
  • Interferes with a self-cleansing mechanism
  • Initiates periodontal destruction
  • Results in periodontal diseases

Question 5. Bruxism.
Answer:

It is unconscious grinding of teeth usually at night time.

Bruxism Types:

  • Nocturnal
  • Diurnal

Bruxism Features:

  • Presence of Occlusal factors
  • No association with periodontal disease
  • Lead to tooth fracture
  • Tooth wear
  • Muscle hypertrophy

Bruxism Etiology:

  • Occlusal disharmony
  • Psychological

Bruxism Treatment:

  • Maxillary stabilization

Question 6. The sequence of food impaction.
Answer:

  • Gingivitis
  • Periodontal pocket
  • Bone loss
  • Tooth mobility

Question 7. Etiological significance of calculus in periodontitis (or) What is the role of calculus in periodontitis?
Answer:

Role Of Calculus In Periodontitis:

  • Calculus provides a fixed nidus for continuous plaque accumulation
  • It brings plaque bacteria close to the supporting tissues • Interferes with a local self-cleansing defense mechanism
  • Acts as a reservoir for irritating substances such as en- endotoxins, antigenic material, and bone-resorbing factors
  • Makes plaque removal more difficult for the patient

Question 8. Define Food Impaction.
Answer:

Forceful wedging of the food into the periodontium by occlusal forces

Food Impaction Causes:

  • Uneven occlusal wear
  • Loss of proximal contact
  • Congenital abnormalities
  • Faulty restoration

Dental Calculus And Other Etiological Factors Viva Voce

  1. Anti-tartar agents are triclosan, pyrophosphate, and zinc salts
  2. Anti-tartar agents inhibit mineralization
  3. Calculus embedded deeply into the cementum is called calculocementum
  4. Calculus provides a fixed nidus for the continued ac- cumulation of plaque
  5. The irritating effect of materia alba on the gingiva is caused by bacteria and their products
  6. Distolingual cusp of upper second molar is common- est plunger cusp
  7. Subgingival calculus is the dark green or dark brown be- cause of the presence of blood products
  8. A. viscous possess fimbriae that help bonding to the dental pellicle
  9. The location and extent of the subgingival calculus may be evaluated clinically by the explorer
  10. Calculus attaches to the tooth surface through chemical bonding to the hydroxyapatite
  11. In the pathogenesis of periodontal disease, calculus acts as contributing factor.

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