Acute Poisoning And Environmental Emergencies Question and Answers

Acute Poisoning And Environmental Emergencies Short Answers

Question 1. Fluorosis



Dental fluorosis is caused by excessive intake of fluoride during tooth development

Fluorosis Clinical Features

  • Lustreless, opaque white patches in the enamel which may become mottled, striated, or pitted
  • Mottled areas may become stained yellow or brown
  • Hypoplastic areas may also be present to such an extent in severe cases that normal tooth form is lost
  • Enamel fluorosis is a developmental phenomenon due to excessive fluoride ingestion during amelogenesis
  • Once crowns are formed no further fluorosis occurs
  • The hypocalcified areas of the mottled enamel are less soluble in acids
  • They have a greater permeability to dyes
  • They emit fluorescence of higher intensity then normal enamel
  • Fluorosis occurs symmetrically within arches
  • The premolars is usually first affected followed by second molar, maxillary incisor, canine, first molar, and mandibular incisors

Question 2. Food poisoning


Food poisoning Management:

  1. Resuscitation and initial stabilization
  2. Diagnosis of type of poison by
    • History
    • Examination
    • Laboratory investigations
    • Nonspecific therapy- to reduce the levels of toxin
  3. Specific therapy- to reduce toxic effects on the body
  4. Supportive care- to support functions of vital organs

Question 3. Arsenic poisoning


Arsenic poisoning Features:

  • Gingivitis
  • Stomatitis
  • Painful mucosal ulceration
  • Hyperpigmentation and hyperkeratosis
  • Excessive salivation
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Neurological disturbances

Read And Learn More: General Medicine Question and Answers

Question 4. Barbiturate poisoning


Barbiturate poisoning

  • Fatal dose of phenobarbitone is 6-10 gram

Barbiturate poisoning Symptoms:

  • Respiratory depression with slow and shallow breathing
  • Hypotension
  • Skin eruptions
  • Cardiovascular collapse
  • Renal failure

Barbiturate poisoning Treatment:

  • Gastric lavage followed by administration of activated charcoal
  • Maintain BP
  • Airway maintenance
  • Adequate ventilation
  • Oxygen administration
  • Forced alkaline diuresis with sodium bicarbonate, a diuretic and 4 fluids
  • Hemodialysis

Question 5. Scorpion bite


Types of Scorpion Venom:

  1. Venom of the genera Hadrurus, Vejovis, and Uroctonus
    • Effects:
      • Sharp burning
      • Swelling
      • Discoloration at the bite site
      • Rarely anaphylaxis
  2. Venom produced by genera of the poisonous varieties of centuries
    • Effects
      • Block sodium channels
      • Spontaneous depolarization of parasympathetic and sympathetic nerves
      • Tachycardia
      • Hypertension
      • Sweating
      • Piloerection
      • Hyperglycemia
      • Pulmonary edema
      • Seizures
  3. Treatment:
    • Patient is hospitalised for at least 12 hours
    • Maintain airway maintenance
    • Administration of 1-2 vials of intravenous anti-venin

Question 6. Lead poisoning


Lead poisoning Features:

  • Excessive salivary secretions
  • Metallic taste in the oral cavity
  • Swelling of the salivary glands
  • Development of the dark lead line along the gingival margin
  • Convulsions
  • GI upset
  • Anaemia
  • Neuritis
  • Basophilic stippling of the RBC cells

Question 7. Adverse drug reactions


Adverse drug reactions Definition:

  • It is defined as any response to a drug that is noxious and unintended and that occurs at the dose used in man for prevention, diagnosis, or therapy

Adverse drug reactions Types:

  1. Side effects
    • They are unwanted effects of a drug
  2. Toxic effects
    • They are seen with higher doses of the drug
  3. Intolerance
    • A person cannot tolerate a drug
  4. Idiosyncrasy
    • It is a genetically determined abnormal reaction to a drug
  5. Allergic reactions
    • They are immunologically mediated reactions
  6. Iatrogenic diseases
    • These are drug-induced diseases
  7. Drug dependence
    • It is a state of compulsive use of drugs despite the knowledge of the risks associated with its use
  8. Teratogenicity
    • A drug can cause fetal abnormalities when administered to a pregnant woman
  9. Teratogenicity and mutagenicity
    • Drugs causing cancers and genetic abnormalities

Acute Poisoning And Environmental Emergencies Medcial interview

Question 8. Organophosphorous poisoning


Organophosphorous poisoning

Acute Poisoning And Environmental Emergencies Organophosphorous Poisoning

Question 9. Thrush



  • Acute pseudomembranous oral candidiasis is also known as thrush

Common Sites Involved:

  • Buccal mucosa
  • Tongue
  • Palate


  • Causative organism- Candida albicans
  • Prolonged antibiotic therapy
  • Immuno-suppression

Predisposing Factors:

  • Infancy
  • Debilitating illness
  • Metabolic diseases
  • Diabetes
  • Hypothyroidism

Thrush Features:

  • Foul taste
  • Leads to inflammation, erythema, and eroded areas
  • Presence of adherent white plaques
  • It can be removed by scraping
  • It is more common in women

Thrush Treatment:

  1. Anti-fungal antibiotics
    • Nystatin
    • Amphotericin suspension or lozenges
  2. For AIDS patient
    • Oral fluconazole is used

Question 10. Halitosis


Halitosis Definition:

  • Unpleasant odor exhaled in breathing is called halitosis

Halitosis Classification:

  1. Physiologic
  2. Pathologic
    • Oral
    • Extraoral

Halitosis Causes:

  1. Physiologic
    • Mouth breathing
    • Medication
    • Fasting
    • Aging
    • Tobacco
    • Food
  2. Pathologic
    • Periodontal infection
    • Tongue coating
    • Stomatitis
    • Xerostomia
    • Faulty restoration
    • Unclean denture
    • Ulcers
    • Abscess
    • Systemic diseases

Halitosis Treatment:

  • Scaling
  • Irrigation
  • Burning sensation
  • Tongue brushing
  • Use of moouth rinse
  • Use of Halita

Question 11. Macroglossia



  • Macroglossia is a relatively common condition characterised by an increase in the size of the tongue

Types And Causes

  1. Congenital macroglossia
    • Overdevelopment of the tongue musculature
    • Lysosomal storage diseases
    • Down’s syndrome
    • Multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome
  2. Acquired macroglossia
    • Tumours in the tongue
    • Amyloidosis
    • Endocrine disorders
    • Lymphatic obstruction in the tongue
    • Cystic lesions in the tongue

Macroglossia Clinical Features:

  • Causes displacement of teeth and malocclusion
  • Disturbances in speech and feeding
  • Cosmetic deformity
  • Indentation or scalloping on the lateral margins of the tongue
  • Development of tongue-thrusting habits
  • Airway obstruction

Macroglossia Treatment:

  • Removal of the primary cause
  • Surgical reduction or trimming

Question 12. Ciprofloxacin



  • Ciprofloxacin is the first generation of fluoroquinolone

Ciprofloxacin Uses:

  • Urinary tract infection
  • Typhoid
  • Diarrhea
  • Gonorrhea
  • Chancroid
  • Respiratory tract infection
  • Bone, joint, soft tissue, and intra-abdominal infections
  • Tuberculosis
  • Bacterial prostatitis and cervicitis
  • Eye infections
  • Anthrax
  • Orodental infections

Ciprofloxacin Adverse Reactions:

  • Nausea, vomiting, abdominal discomfort, diarrhea
  • Rashes
  • Tendinitis
  • Damages growing cartilage

Question 12. Phenobarbitone



  • Phenobarbitone is an anti-epileptic drug

Mechanism of Action:

  • Enhances inhibitory neurotransmission in the CNS
  • Enhances activation of GABA receptors
  • Facilitates GABA-mediated opening of chloride ion channels

Phenobarbitone Uses:

  • Generalized tonic-clonic seizures
  • Partial seizures

Phenobarbitone Adverse Reactions:

  • Sedation
  • Tolerance
  • Nystagmus
  • Ataxia
  • Megaloblastic anemia
  • Osteomalacia
  • Skin rashes
  • Hypersensitivity reactions

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